Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Brain Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Help With Brain Physiology

What is the name of the bundle of fibers that connects Wernicke's area to Broca's area?

Possible Answers:

Central sulcus 

Corpus collosum

Aqueduct of Sylvius

Arcuate fasiculus 

Lateral sulcus

Correct answer:

Arcuate fasiculus 

Explanation:

The bundle of fibers that connects Wenicke's area with Broca's area is called the arcuate fasiculus. Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe and Wernicke's area is located in the temporal lobe. The corpus callosum is a band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain. The Aqueduct of Sylvius is a canal which cerebrospinal fluid flows between the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. The lateral sulcus is a prominent structure in the brain which divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe (above) from the temporal lobe (below), while the central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. 

Example Question #33 : Central Nervous System

Knowing how to ride a bike is an example of what type of memory? 

Possible Answers:

Declarative memory 

Working memory 

Procedural 

Immediate 

Short-term 

Correct answer:

Procedural 

Explanation:

Knowing how to ride a bike is an example of procedural memory. Procedural memory is involved in learning motor skills. Working memory can be another name for immediate memory, which means lasts a few seconds to a few minutes, such as temporarily remembering a set of numbers. Declarative memory includes short-term memory and is concerned with people, events, occurrences, and facts. 

Example Question #41 : Central Nervous System

The "biological master clock" or regulation of sleep-wake cycle is controlled by what structure of the brain? 

Possible Answers:

Thyroid

Thalamus

Cerebellum

Basal ganglia 

Hypothalamus

Correct answer:

Hypothalamus

Explanation:

The hypothalamus (part of the diencephalon) is responsible for maintaining the sleep-wake cycle and regulating the "biological clock". These are set by a specific nuclei located in the hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The thalamus is also part of the diencephalon but is primarily involved in relaying sensory and motor signals through the cerebral cortex. The thyroid is an endocrine gland which secretes thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, and temperature. The cerebellum coordinates muscle activity and the basal ganglia aids in coordinating movement. The epithalamus contains the pineal gland, which may play a role in the sleep-wake-cycle (circadian rhythm) via the hormone melatonin.

Example Question #21 : Help With Brain Physiology

The cerebellum is responsible for which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

Sensory

Vision

Hearing and memory

Executive functioning and personality

Coordinated body movement and muscle memory

Correct answer:

Coordinated body movement and muscle memory

Explanation:

The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control.  The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it is important in coordination, precision, and accurate timing of movements. The cerebellum receives and integrates input from the sensory systems from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain to fine tune motor activity.

The parietal lobe is important in sensory integration, visuaospatial processing, and the manipulation of objects. The frontal lobe is responsible for conscious thought and executive functioning; damage to the lobe can result in mood and personality changes. The occipital lobe is responsible for sight; damage to the area can produce hallucinations and blindness. The temporal lobe is involved in the sense of smell and sound, it also plays a role in processing complex stimuli such as faces and scenes and memory. 

Example Question #93 : Neural Physiology

The brainstem is directly responsible for which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

Respiration, circulation, digestion

Executive functioning

Body movement and coordination

Speech production

Sensory integration

Correct answer:

Respiration, circulation, digestion

Explanation:

The brainstem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem continues inferiorly to become the spinal cord. The brainstem is responsible for basic living functions, including but not limited to: respiration, circulation (including heart rate), and digestion. As such, any injury to the brainstem would be catastrophic. Additionally ten of twelve cranial nerves pass through the brainstem, going on to provide the face and neck with motor and sensory functions. Furthermore, nerve conduction of the motor and sensory systems of the brain and body pass through the brain stem including the corticospinal tract (involved in motor activity), the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (involved in fine touch, vibration sensation, and proprioception), and the spinothalamic tract (involved in pain, temperature, itch, and crude touch).

Example Question #41 : Central Nervous System

The frontal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

Executive functioning and personality

Hearing and memory

Integration of sensation

Vision

Breathing, circulation, and digestion

Correct answer:

Executive functioning and personality

Explanation:

The cerebrum consists of four lobes: the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. Some sources also include the limbic lobe (responsible for emotion and memory) and the insular cortex (responsible for pain). The frontal lobe is responsible for conscious thought and executive functioning; damage to the lobe can result in mood and personality changes. The parietal lobe is important in sensory integration, in visuaospatial processing, and the manipulation of objects. The occipital lobe is responsible for sight; damage to the area can produce hallucinations and blindness. The temporal lobe is involved in the sense of smell and sound, memory, and it also plays a role in processing complex stimuli such as faces and scenes. 

The cerebellum is responsible for coordinated body movements and muscle memory. The brainstem allows for breathing, circulation, heart rate, and digestion.

Example Question #21 : Help With Brain Physiology

The parietal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

Hearing and memory

Executive functioning and personality

Sensory integration

All of these

Vision

Correct answer:

Sensory integration

Explanation:

The cerebrum consists of four lobes: the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. Some sources also include the limbic lobe (responsible for emotion and memory) and the insular cortex (responsible for pain). The parietal lobe is important in sensory integration, visuaospatial processing, and the manipulation of objects. The frontal lobe is responsible for conscious thought and executive functioning; damage to the lobe can result in mood and personality changes. The occipital lobe is responsible for sight; damage to the area can produce hallucinations and blindness. The temporal lobe is involved in the sense of smell and sound, it also plays a role in processing complex stimuli such as faces and scenes and memory. 

Example Question #41 : Central Nervous System

Where is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) made?

Possible Answers:

Choroid plexus

Dural venous sinuses 

Cerebral aquaduct

Cerebral ventricles 

Arachnoid granulations

Correct answer:

Choroid plexus

Explanation:

CSF is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the subarachnoid space of the brain and spine that acts as a cushion for the brain. In addition to mechanical protection, CSF also provides immunological protection to the brain. CSF is made in the choroid plexus of the brain’s ventricles. Approximately 500 mL of CSF are made daily, however due to constant reabsorption, only about 100-160 mL are present at a given moment. 

Example Question #22 : Help With Brain Physiology

Where is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reabsorbed?

Possible Answers:

Arachnoid granulations

Thoracic duct

Superior vena cava

Choroid plexus

Cerebral ventricles 

Correct answer:

Arachnoid granulations

Explanation:

CSF is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the subarachnoid space of the brain and spine that acts as a cushion for the brain. In addition to mechanical protection, CSF also provides immunological protection to the brain. CSF is made in the choroid plexus of the brain’s ventricles. Approximately 500 mL of CSF are made daily, however due to constant reabsorption, only about 100-160 mL are present at a given moment. 

CSF is returned to the vascular system by entering the dural venous sinuses through arachnoid granulations. Some have suggested that CSF flows along the cranial nerves and spinal nerves into lymphatic channels.

Example Question #42 : Central Nervous System

The hypothalamus is responsible for which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

A relay station for information

Body movement, coordination, and muscle memory

Breathing, circulation, and digestion

Vision

Homeostasis, including body temperature and circadian rhythms

Correct answer:

Homeostasis, including body temperature and circadian rhythms

Explanation:

The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brainstem and controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian rhythms.

The thalamus can be thought of as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to and from the cerebral cortex. The brainstem is responsible for breathing, circulation, and digestion. The cerebellum plays an important role in coordination of body movements and muscle memory.

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