Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Brain Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Central Nervous System

What does the choroid plexus produce?

Possible Answers:

Lymph

Cerebrospinal fluid

Urine

Plasma

Correct answer:

Cerebrospinal fluid

Explanation:

The choroid plexus consists of modified ependymal cells and is found within the walls of the cerebral ventricles and secretes cerebrospinal fluid. Plasma is the extracellular matrix of the blood. Urine is produced by the kidneys. Lymph is the excess fluid drained from the cardiovascular system, and mixes with blood at the level of the subclavian veins. 

Example Question #22 : Central Nervous System

The putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus are part of the __________.

Possible Answers:

cerebellum 

None of these

diencephalon

basal ganglia 

corpus callosum 

Correct answer:

basal ganglia 

Explanation:

The basal ganglia is a structure of the cerebrum that contains grey matter called the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus. There are also two midbrain structures called the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. 

Example Question #81 : Neural Physiology

What are the special membranes covering the brain and spinal cord called?

Possible Answers:

Dermatome 

White matter 

Phospholipid 

Meninges 

Grey Matter 

Correct answer:

Meninges 

Explanation:

The brain and spinal cord are protected by special membranes called meninges. The meninges are made up of three membranes listed from superficial to deep: dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Note that the cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, called the subarachnoid space.

Example Question #82 : Neural Physiology

The fourth ventricle of the cerebral hemisphere is connected to the third ventricle via the __________

Possible Answers:

medulla oblongata 

interventricular foramina 

aqueduct of Sylvius 

meninges 

corpus callosum 

Correct answer:

aqueduct of Sylvius 

Explanation:

The fourth ventricle is connected to the third ventricle via the aqueduct of Sylvius (also known as the cerebral aqueduct). The third ventricle connects with the lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramina. 

Example Question #83 : Neural Physiology

The nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus are found in what structure of the brain? 

Possible Answers:

Midbrain

Hypothalamus

Pons 

Medulla

Thalamus 

Correct answer:

Medulla

Explanation:

The medulla is part of the brain stem. The brain stem includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain. The medulla contains the ascending and descending tracts that communicate between the spinal cord and brain. The nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus are two important nuclei found in the dorsal side of the medulla which receive sensory fibers from the fasiculus gracilis and fasiculus cuneatus. 

Example Question #31 : Central Nervous System

What are the two major components of the diencephalon? 

Possible Answers:

Substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus 

Cerebrum and cerebellum

Midbrain and medulla

Thalamus and thyroid 

Thalamus and hypothalamus 

Correct answer:

Thalamus and hypothalamus 

Explanation:

The two major components of the diencephalon are the thalamus and hypothalamus. The substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus make up the basal ganglia while the midbrain and medulla are part of the brainstem. 

Example Question #32 : Central Nervous System

The band of myelinated fibers which connects the two cerebral hemispheres is called the: 

Possible Answers:

longitudinal fissure 

sulci

corpus callosum

aqueduct of Sylvius

lateral sulcus 

Correct answer:

corpus callosum

Explanation:

The corpus callosum is the band of myelinated fibers which connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Sulci is the general term for the grooves "valleys" in the brain. The cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) carries cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. The longitudinal fissure is the deep groove that separates the left and right hemispheres of the brain. The lateral sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain from the temporal lobe.

Example Question #85 : Neural Physiology

Broca's area is a motor speech area located in which area of the brain?

Possible Answers:

Temporal lobe

Frontal lobe

Occipital lobe

Parietal lobe 

Prefrontal cortex 

Correct answer:

Frontal lobe

Explanation:

Broca's area (motor speech area) is located in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. Broca's area controls all activities associated with speech production, including articulation and facial expression. However, recently it has been suggested that it also plays significant roles in speech comprehension. This is not to be confused with Wernicke's area, which is also in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe, but is more associated with speech comprehension than speech production. 

Example Question #84 : Neural Physiology

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by the __________.

Possible Answers:

choroid plexuses 

intraventricular foramen 

None of these

arachnoid villi

medulla oblongata 

Correct answer:

choroid plexuses 

Explanation:

Cerebrospinal fluid is found mainly in the four ventricles, where it is produced by the choroid plexuses. The choroid plexuses consist of capillary networks surrounded by ependymal cells of the neuroglia. The arachnoid villi are small protrusions in the venous sinuses of the brain (namely the superior sagittal sinus) that allow cerebrospinal fluid to drain back into the blood.

Example Question #31 : Central Nervous System

Which of the following structures in the brain plays a key role in homeostasis of heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate?

Possible Answers:

Cerebellum

Thalamus

Medulla oblongata 

Pons 

Hypothalamus

Correct answer:

Medulla oblongata 

Explanation:

The medulla oblongata is part of the brainstem. It has chemoreceptors to detect changes in blood gasses, which is integrated and transformed via negative feedback by altering respiratory rate and aspects of cardiac function such as heart rate and cardiac output via the autonomic nervous system. Many reflexes are also carried out by the medulla including vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing. The hypothalamus regulates many other homeostatic parameters such as hunger, basal body temperature, circadian rhythm, thirst, fatigue, in addition to acting as the "master" of the pituitary gland, which secretes several hormones.

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