Human Anatomy and Physiology : Digestive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Digestive Physiology

Which macromolecule can begin digestion in the mouth?

Possible Answers:

Proteins

Triglycerides

Carbohydrates

Nucleotides

Correct answer:

Carbohydrates

Explanation:

Saliva contains the enzyme alpha amylase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down starch and carbohydrates into smaller polysaccharide chains.

Later, in the small intestine, pancreatic beta amylase further digests the carbohydrates until they can be absorbed into the blood. Most chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine, where enzymes to digest proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are introduced to the digestive tract.

Example Question #2 : Help With Mouth, Pharynx, And Esophagus Physiology

Which of the following is the start of the gastrointestinal tract?

Possible Answers:

Pharynx

Esophagus

Mouth

Stomach

Correct answer:

Mouth

Explanation:

The mouth is the start of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the site of both mechanical and chemical digestion via chewing, and saliva, respectively. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks down carbohydrates. 

Example Question #1 : Digestive Physiology

In which part of the digestive system does carbohydrate digestion begin?

Possible Answers:

Stomach

Pharynx

Mouth

Esophagus

Small intestine

Correct answer:

Mouth

Explanation:

The correct answer is mouth. While each answer choice has a part in the digestion process, carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth, which provides enzymes required for starch (amylase) and sugar (lactase, maltase, sucrase) digestion.

Carbohydrate digestion (starches and sugars) begins in the mouth with the enzyme salivary amylase. Amylase, which is also found in the small intestine, is responsible for breaking apart starches. Sugars are also digested (broken down) by three major enzymes located in the mouth and small intestine (lactase, maltase, sucrase). The carbohydrates are broken down along the gastrointestinal tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach) and are absorbed while moving through the small intestine.

 

Example Question #1 : Digestive Physiology

Which of the following extrinsic muscles of the tongue is responsible for depression and protrusion?

Possible Answers:

Genioglossus

Styloglossus

Hyoglossus

Palatoglossus

Vertical muscle

Correct answer:

Genioglossus

Explanation:

Styloglossus: elevates and retracts tongue

Hyoglossus: depresses and retracts the tongue

Palatoglossus: elevates the tongue

Vertical muscles: this is an intrinsic muscle of the tongue

Example Question #2 : Digestive Physiology

What is the definition of "deglutition"?

Possible Answers:

Urinating

Chewing

Swallowing

Voiding

Correct answer:

Swallowing

Explanation:

"Deglutition" is the scientific term for swallowing. In contrast, the scientific term for chewing is "mastication." The scientific term for urination is "micturition." Lastly, "voiding" is also another word for urination. 

Example Question #2 : Help With Mouth, Pharynx, And Esophagus Physiology

Which of the following does not begin digestion in the mouth?

Possible Answers:

polysaccharides

glucose

proteins

lipids

Correct answer:

proteins

Explanation:

Proteins need pepsin in order to begin digestion, and that enzyme is only produced in the stomach — not the mouth.

Example Question #1 : Digestive Physiology

Which stomach cell is responsible for the activation of pepsinogen?

Possible Answers:

Parietal cells

Chief cells

Goblet cells

G cells

Correct answer:

Parietal cells

Explanation:

Pepsinogen is an inactive enzyme that is released into the stomach lumen by chief cells. Parietal cells are responsible for secreting hydrochloric acid. This acid will cleave the pepsinogen and make it an active enzyme, pepsin, which can then cleave peptide bonds and begin protein digestion.

Goblet cells secrete mucus to protect the epithelium of the stomach from the acid in the lumen. G cells secrete gastrin, which promotes the secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen.

Example Question #3 : Digestive Physiology

Stratified squamous epithelium can be found in all of the following except in the __________.

Possible Answers:

oropharynx

stomach

esophagus

oral cavity

anal canal

Correct answer:

stomach

Explanation:

Stratified squamous epithelium protects tissues in areas that are prone to abrasion. This lining consists of many layers and is typically located on the areas near/associated with the mouth, excretory system, and the esophagus. The stomach does not have a stratified squamous epithelial lining, as it instead uses simple columnar epithelium.

Example Question #3 : Digestive Physiology

Which of the following is not a function of the stomach?

Possible Answers:

Mechanical breakdown of food

Absorption of triglycerides

Initiation of protein digestion

Denaturation of proteins

Storage of ingested food

Correct answer:

Absorption of triglycerides

Explanation:

The stomach stores ingested food, denatures proteins, initiates protein digestion, and mechanically breaks down food. The absorption of triglycerides, or lipids, takes place in the small intestine.

Example Question #2 : Help With Stomach Physiology

Which of the following exits the stomach most quickly during gastric emptying?

Possible Answers:

Fatty particulates

Protein-rich particulates

Hypertonic liquids

Isotonic liquids

Hypotonic liquids

Correct answer:

Isotonic liquids

Explanation:

Liquids exit the stomach more quickly than solids, and isotonic solutions exits more quickly than hypertonic or hypotonic solutions. As such, isotonic liquids will exit the stomach most quickly during gastric emptying.

Solids exit the stomach in the general order of carbohydrates, followed by proteins, followed by fats.

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