AP Human Geography : Organic Farming & Fair Trade

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #10 : Contemporary Commercial Agriculture

Which of the following is not a benefit of organic farming compared to industrial farming?

Possible Answers:

Reduced carbon footprint

Reduced reliance on pesticides

Reduced effort required to cultivate crops.

Reduced reliance on herbicides

Correct answer:

Reduced effort required to cultivate crops.

Explanation:

Organic farming does not use fossil fuels to control insect and plant pests. This means organic farms tend to have a smaller carbon footprint and less reliance on artificial inputs. The downside, however, is that organic farms also require much more physical labor. Thus the correct answer is, "Reduced effort required to cultivate crops."

Example Question #11 : Contemporary Commercial Agriculture

Most organic products are sold in __________.

Possible Answers:

South America and Western Europe

Western Europe and North America

China and southeast Asia

The Indian subcontinent

The Middle East and North Africa

Correct answer:

Western Europe and North America

Explanation:

Organic products are generally much more expensive to produce and to transport because they are less efficient, less reliable, and spoil more easily. Although they are grown throughout the world, the market for them is primarily concentrated in the wealthy areas of Western Europe and North America.

Example Question #12 : Contemporary Commercial Agriculture

Organic agriculture is primarily defined by __________.

Possible Answers:

farming using irrigation and salinization

free-range livestock rearing

farming without the use biotechnology

All of these answers are correct.

small scale farming outside of corporate interest

Correct answer:

farming without the use biotechnology

Explanation:

“Organic agriculture” is primarily defined by the reluctance to use biotechnology in farming. It usually involves eschewing pesticides and chemical fertilizers, as well as GMOs. It is becoming more and more common, particularly in wealthy areas of the western world, as many people fight back against the perceived environmental damage being wrought by big agriculture. While organic agriculture avoids many of the trappings of large-scale farming it does not always, or even most often, exist outside of corporate interest.

Example Question #11 : Contemporary Commercial Agriculture

Which of the following is best defined as a farm that is jointly owned by several members who share in the profits and the benefits of the organization?

Possible Answers:

Collective

Antecedent

Gathering

Agribusiness

Cooperative

Correct answer:

Cooperative

Explanation:

The name given to a farming organization that is jointly run and owned by several individual members who share in the profits, benefits, and responsibilities is called a “cooperative.” They are increasing in popularity as a way for the local community to “fight back” against the influence of multinational agribusiness.

Example Question #14 : Contemporary Commercial Agriculture

How do free trade zones improve international trade?

Possible Answers:

They decrease the need for customs declaration across international borders. 

They establish a common (shared) form of currency. 

All of these

They eliminate tariffs on products that cross international borders. 

They offer poorer nations more money to undergo mass economic development. 

Correct answer:

They eliminate tariffs on products that cross international borders. 

Explanation:

Free trade zones, such as the nations involved in NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), allow for goods from foreign countries to be imported without a tariff, that is, without being taxed for the sake of being foreign goods. In doing so, international trade was improved drastically, helping the manufacturers of foreign foods. 

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