AP Environmental Science : Health Impacts

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Environmental Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Health Impacts

Each of the following is an example of a waterborne disease EXCEPT:

Possible Answers:

meningitis

tuberculosis

typhoid

polio

cholera

Correct answer:

tuberculosis

Explanation:

Tuberculosis has an airborne mechanism of transmission. Cholera, typhoid, polio, and meningitis are all diseases capable of waterborne transmission.

Example Question #1 : Health Impacts

Which of the following is NOT an example of bioaccumulation?

Possible Answers:

Up until the 1980s, hunters used lead shot to hunt waterfowl, and the lead was consumed by the waterfowl, accumulating in their tissues and heightening risk of lead poisoning.

Nuclear fallout from atomic weapon tests conducted in the South Pacific has been found in samples of local coconuts and fish populations, leaving several islands uninhabitable.

Most commercial fruit and vegetable producers spray chemical herbicides, which accumulate in human consumers when we don't wash our produce before eating it.

Mercury found in industrial waste enters the ocean, where it is absorbed by plankton and subsequently absorbed by fish that eat plankton, and bigger fish that eat the smaller fish. It thus accumulates at the higher trophic levels.

Mishandled or spoiled food can contain toxins that result in illness and cause vomiting and diarrhea, the body's natural method of expelling said toxins.

Correct answer:

Mishandled or spoiled food can contain toxins that result in illness and cause vomiting and diarrhea, the body's natural method of expelling said toxins.

Explanation:

Bioaccumulation is the process of a toxin entering an organism at a rate faster than it is evacuated. Toxins from food poisoning are expelled by the body's response to evacuate the substance, while mercury in seafood or lead in waterfowl populations tend to accumulate over time.

Example Question #2 : Health Impacts

Which of the following is NOT a primary pollutant?

Possible Answers:

CFCs

Correct answer:

Explanation:

A primary pollutant comes from a direct source, while a secondary pollutant is formed by chemical reactions from primary pollutants in the environment.  (sulfuric acid) is a product of chemical reactions in the environment, producing acid rain.

Example Question #2 : Health Impacts

Which of the following toxins is most likely to cause a birth defect?

Possible Answers:

Mutagen

Teratogen

None of these

Carcinogen

Correct answer:

Teratogen

Explanation:

A teratogen is most likely to cause a birth defect. Exposure to a teratogen specifically causes deformities in an embryo.

Example Question #3 : Health Impacts

Smog is primarily made up of __________.

Possible Answers:

nitrous oxides

carbon monoxide

ozone

carbon dioxide

Correct answer:

ozone

Explanation:

Ozone is created when sunlight reacts with nitrous oxides and other pollutants, many of which originate from gasoline vapors, combustion products, etc. It is harmful when breathed. On hot days, some metropolitan areas issue smog warnings.

Example Question #3 : Health Impacts

This pollutant is not easily excreted. Accumulations of this pollutant in the body can affect the kidneys, liver, and nervous system. The largest concentrations of this pollutant are found near battery plants and smelters.

Possible Answers:

Carbon monoxide

Ozone

Lead

Iron

Correct answer:

Lead

Explanation:

Lead, a heavy metal, accumulates in the body. Children are especially susceptible to airborne lead. Iron, also a metal, can be problematic in large quantities, but is also necessary in extremely small amounts for proper function.

Example Question #41 : Pollution

This pollutant is typically credited for promoting dental health, but in water in high quantities, health impacts include yellowing teeth and spinal cord damage.

Possible Answers:

arsenic

fluoride

chlorine

nitrate

Correct answer:

fluoride

Explanation:

Fluoride in high doses is extremely problematic, making it a concerning pollutant. It is extremely prevalent in products used in dental health. Because these are products that are generally washed away, fluoride is of special concern as a water pollutant.

Example Question #4 : Health Impacts

Excessive fertilizer use creates abundances of __________ in soil and groundwater.

Possible Answers:

sewage

chlorinated solvents

nitrates

arsenic

Correct answer:

nitrates

Explanation:

Nitrates, a form of nitrogen, are a severe problem in drinking water that has been contaminated with fertilizers. Sewage and fertilizer often go hand in hand from agricultural areas. Arsenic and chlorine are concerning pollutants, but generally not present due to fertilizer use.

Example Question #2 : Health Impacts

A skull and crossbones symbol on a container indicates that the contents are __________.

Possible Answers:

toxic/poisonous

flammable

alcoholic

corrosive

Correct answer:

toxic/poisonous

Explanation:

Skull and crossbones indicates poison. Corrosive materials are labelled "corrosive" and signs indicating the substance corroding metal may be present. Flammable materials are marked with flames.

Example Question #42 : Pollution

Carbon monoxide limits oxygen delivery to the body's organs and tissues. 95% of carbon monoxide emissions in cities comes from __________.

Possible Answers:

automobile exhaust

industrial facilities

coal burning

None of these

Correct answer:

automobile exhaust

Explanation:

Only 5% of carbon monoxide in cities does not originate from car exhaust. Though industrial facilities are a major concern as a source of pollution, regarding carbon monoxide specifically, automobiles have a much higher impact.

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