ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells first appeared billions of years ago and were marked by the presence of membrane-bound organelles (organelles with a lipid bilayer surrounding them) similar to the outer and inner membranes of prokaryotes like bacteria. One of these membrane bound organelles is called the mitochondrion, which is responsible for helping generate energy in the form of a nucleotide-sugar molecule called adenosine triphosphate (also known as ATP).

 

By using only oxygen and glucose (a type of sugar composed of a single molecule) as reactants, the mitochondrion is responsible for generating ATP and water. In order to make ATP, animals must eat food products that contain sugars, such as potatoes, which contain molecules called starches that have many sugar molecules linked together. Once the sugar has been processed in the cell by an enzyme called amylase, it undergoes a process called glycolysis, which breaks down glucose into a molecule called pyruvate and provides 2 ATP molecules in the process.

 

After glycolysis, the pyruvate molecule is transported to the mitochondrion, carried across its membrane and then enters a process called the Kreb’s cycle, where a net of 34 ATP are produced. However, the process of transporting the pyruvate molecule into the mitochondrion requires 1 ATP. The ATP produced from both glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle serves to allow the cell to carry out its housekeeping functions.

If a mutation inactivated the protein responsible for transporting pyruvate into the mitochondrion, how many ATP could be produced by one glucose molecule?

Possible Answers:

34

2

0

36

Correct answer:

2

Explanation:

The passage tells us that two ATP are produced by glucose in the process called glycolysis that occurs outside of the mitochondrion. Additionally, the passage tells us that in order to generate the remaining ATP, the pyruvate must be imported into the mitochondrion. Thus, a mutation that prevents transport would prevent generation of the remaining ATP, leaving us with a grand total of 2 ATP produced.

Example Question #62 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells first appeared billions of years ago and were marked by the presence of membrane-bound organelles (organelles with a lipid bilayer surrounding them) similar to the outer and inner membranes of prokaryotes like bacteria. One of these membrane bound organelles is called the mitochondrion, which is responsible for helping generate energy in the form of a nucleotide-sugar molecule called adenosine triphosphate (also known as ATP).

 

By using only oxygen and glucose (a type of sugar composed of a single molecule) as reactants, the mitochondrion is responsible for generating ATP and water. In order to make ATP, animals must eat food products that contain sugars, such as potatoes, which contain molecules called starches that have many sugar molecules linked together. Once the sugar has been processed in the cell by an enzyme called amylase, it undergoes a process called glycolysis, which breaks down glucose into a molecule called pyruvate and provides 2 ATP molecules in the process.

 

After glycolysis, the pyruvate molecule is transported to the mitochondrion, carried across its membrane and then enters a process called the Kreb’s cycle, where a net of 34 ATP are produced. However, the process of transporting the pyruvate molecule into the mitochondrion requires 1 ATP. The ATP produced from both glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle serves to allow the cell to carry out its housekeeping functions.W

According to the passage, what must be the first step in starch digestion to allow for ATP production?

Possible Answers:

Import of Glucose Into the Mitochondrion

Starch Entering Glycolysis

Breaking Starch into Glucose Monomers

None of the Above

Correct answer:

Breaking Starch into Glucose Monomers

Explanation:

The passage tells us that starch is composed of many glucose molecules attached together. However, the process of glycolysis can only occur with glucose monomers. Thus, the first step in breaking down starch must be to create glucose monomers that can then enter glycolysis.

Example Question #63 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

     Criminal and deviant acts have plagued society for many years. Scientists have tried to isolate variables and factors of individuals susceptible to these behaviors. The goal of this research is to create models of individuals most likely to commit deviant acts. Prediction of criminal behavior could reduce crime rates on a grand scale. Three scientists express their views on how to model criminal behavior and predict or prevent criminal acts.

Scientist 1

     Criminal behavior is the result of prehistoric tendencies that favor aggressive and deviant acts for survival. A study of the corpses of criminals revealed that many exhibited prominent brows, strong upper bodies, large chests and other attributes that lend to a physical model of prediction that classifies criminals as "evolutionary throwbacks."

Scientist 2

     Criminal behavior is the result of psychological ills that may be remedied with treatment and hospitalization. Studies have revealed that many criminal men possess an XYY makeup. This means that they contain one extra Y chromosome that results in aggressive, deviant, and criminal behaviors. Further studies have revealed that these genetic abnormalities can alter hormonal secretion and lead to criminally deviant actions and behaviors. Increased serotonin levels can lead to aggressive tendencies while altered dopamine secretion can chemically reward the commitment of deviant acts by stimulating pleasure receptors.

Scientist 3

     Criminal behavior is the result of neurological abnormalities that can be studied and mapped. Studies of criminal and non-criminal persons have revealed inconsistencies in brain scans and neurological makeup. These alterations in brain chemistry and function have resulted in the development of sociopathic and narcissistic tendencies. These tendencies often increase probabilities for deviant and violent outbursts. The best way to predict criminal behavior is to utilize neurological scanning and mapping procedures.

Prison codes are altered and each inmate is genetically screened. Only one-fourth of the prison population in the United States possesses an XYY genotype. How would Scientist 2 defend his views?

Possible Answers:

People containing an XYY phenotype often deliver "false negatives" on conventional genetic screenings.

The XYY genotype is more of a state of mind rather than a genetically detectable abnormality.

Psychological issues can be caused by a variety of conditions related to hormonal and chemical messengers and are not confined to differences in genetic variance.

Psychological issues are the product of both nature and the environment and cannot be restricted to chromosomal structure.

Correct answer:

Psychological issues can be caused by a variety of conditions related to hormonal and chemical messengers and are not confined to differences in genetic variance.

Explanation:

Psychological issues can be caused by a variety of conditions related to hormonal and chemical messengers and are not confined to differences in genetic variance.

This answer is correct because it most agrees with the scientists views. He stated that chemical and hormonal messengers are the causes of crime and sought to explain them with an example of a genetic issue that could cause criminal behavior. He did not state that this was the only case. The other answers are incorrect because the scientist never defended the case for nature versus nurture, the problems of "false negatives,"nor did he state that the XYY genotype was a state of mind.

Example Question #64 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

A spectrophotometer measures specific light wavelengths emitted by a sample. The readings of the samples are compared to those on a standard curve of known values. The standard curve creates a line and the equation of this line can be used to extrapolate the concentration of a given substance in samples whose spectrophotometric measurements fall within range of the curve.

Standard_curve_2

A scientist measures a sample and finds that it has an absorbance of . What is the concentration of substance in this sample?

Possible Answers:

Cannot be determined

5.0

5.375

5.5

Correct answer:

5.5

Explanation:

The equation of the line in the standard curve is 

Absorbance is located on the y axis. The sample has an absorbance of . Using the equation of the line we can easily calculate the concentration of substance in the sample.

Example Question #65 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

Experiment 2 is repeated. Participant A's glucagon levels are recording instead of insulin. What would you expect Participant A's glucagon level to be after 5 hours? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

According to Figure 1, insulin experiences a spike after 2 hours and returns back to normal levels around 5 hours. Based on the information in the passage, it can be interpreted that glucagon would follow a similar pattern. Glucagon should experience a decrease after 2 hours and return back to normal around 5 hours. Therefore, the glucagon levels can be expected to be around .

Example Question #66 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

Experiment 2 is repeated. Instead of insulin levels, Participant A's glucagon levels are recorded. What would you expect Participant A's blood glucose level to be after 1 hour?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

By recording glucagon levels instead of insulin levels, there should not be a significant change to the blood sugar levels. Therefore, it would be expected that the blood sugar levels remain the same at  after 1 hour.

Example Question #67 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.  

Local legislators are worried about methane emissions in their county. They consult Study 1 at the six-month mark of the investigation. They determine that the amount of methane released into the environment due to hydraulic fracturing is negligible, and their is no reason to be worried about future emissions. Is their conclusion valid given the evidence present in the passage?

Possible Answers:

Yes, it is clear that up to the six-month mark, methane emissions are relatively low.

No, methane emissions are hazardous at even low levels.

Yes, methane emissions do not exceed 16 metric tons over the 16 month period.

No, the trend in the graph shows a near exponential rise in methane emissions after the six-month mark.

Correct answer:

No, the trend in the graph shows a near exponential rise in methane emissions after the six-month mark.

Explanation:

No, the trend in the graph shows a near exponential rise in methane emissions after the six month mark.

This is the correct answer because it is clear that the methane levels spike after the rig has been in operation over six months. This increase is so great that it follows the shape of an exponential growth curve. No evidence in the passage supports that low levels of methane are hazardous. Likewise, no evidence states that levels below 16 metric tons in a month are safe. Last, before making a conclusion on the dangers of fracking, the legislators should study a site for more than six months.

Example Question #68 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.

What is the difference in the amount of methane released between month 2 and month 14 in Figure 1?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

In month 2 of Figure 1, the rig emitted 1 metric ton of methane. In month 14, the rig emitted 14 metric tons of methane. To calculate the difference one needs to subtract these values from one another.

 

Example Question #69 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.

What is the global warming potential of carbon dioxide?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

In Study 2, the passage states that the global warming potential of methane is  and that this value indicates that methane causes 21 times as much warming than an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide over a 100-year period; therefore, the global warming potential of carbon dioxide is .

Example Question #351 : Biology

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.

After reviewing the trend in Figure 1, which of the following predictions can be made about methane emissions in the next several months?

Possible Answers:

Methane emissions will increase dramatically. 

Methane emissions will remain relatively unchanged.

Methane emissions will decrease.

Methane emissions will increase then decrease.

Correct answer:

Methane emissions will remain relatively unchanged.

Explanation:

Methane emissions will remain relatively unchanged.

The methane emissions in figure one rise exponentially and then plateau. This indicates that once the rig has operated for several months emissions reach a steady level that remains relatively consistent. 

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