ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

An experiment was done to look at the effects of iodine supplements on the production of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Individuals in the study were divided into categories based on the dosage of iodine supplemented. The chart below summarizes the data collected. THY1 is the average amount of thyroxine in the group prior to taking the supplement. THY2 is the average amount of thyroxine in the group after three months of taking supplements.

 

 

THY1

Dosage of Iodine

THY2

Group 1

3.220

0

3.289

Group 2

2.988

0

3.102

Group 3

3.134

1mmg

3.248

Group 4

3.387

3mmg

4.001

Group 5

3.024

6mmg

5.830

From looking at the control group (Group 1) it can be inferred that: 

Possible Answers:

Thyroxine levels did not change over the three month period because iodine supplements were not given. 

Thyroxine levels tended to naturally lower some over the three month period, independent of iodine supplements. 

Thyroxine levels decreased naturally over the three month period, independent of iodine supplements. 

Thyroxine levels tended to naturally rise some over the three month period when given 1 mmg of iodine.

Thyroxine levels tended to naturally rise some over the three month period, independent of iodine supplements. 

Correct answer:

Thyroxine levels tended to naturally rise some over the three month period, independent of iodine supplements. 

Explanation:

Group 1 had a rise in thyroxine levels (3.220 to 3.289) even though the group did not recieve an iodine supplement. 

Example Question #22 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

What is a eukaryotic cell?

Possible Answers:

A cell whose only nucleic acid is RNA

A cell that contains membrane-bound organelles

A cell that contains DNA

A unicellular organism that lacks a proper nucleus

Correct answer:

A cell that contains membrane-bound organelles

Explanation:

A eukaryotic cell is generally found within a multicellular organism (yeast is the exception). The organelles within a eukaryotic cell are bound by membranes.

Example Question #23 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

The sequence of a nucleic acid is ATGCCCTAATGA. What type of nucleic acid is this?

Possible Answers:

Protein

Eukaryotic Cell

RNA

DNA

Correct answer:

DNA

Explanation:

Only RNA and DNA are nucleic acids. One of the key differences between DNA and RNA is the fact that DNA contains thymine (T) while RNA contains uracil (U). Therefore, this sequence is an example of a DNA sequence.

Example Question #301 : Act Science

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

The sequence of a nucleic acid is AUGCCCUAAUGA. What type of nucleic acid is this?

Possible Answers:

RNA

Eukaryotic Cell

Protein

DNA

Correct answer:

RNA

Explanation:

Only DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. One of the key differences between DNA and RNA is the fact that DNA contains thymine (T) while RNA contains uracil (U). Therefore, this is an RNA sequence.

Example Question #25 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

What are some differences between RNA and DNA?

Possible Answers:

Both DNA and RNA are double stranded, however, DNA contains thymine while RNA contains uracil

DNA is single stranded and contains thymine while RNA is double stranded and contains uracil

DNA is double stranded and contain uracil while RNA is single stranded and contains thymine

DNA is double stranded and contains thymine while RNA is single stranded and contains uracil

Correct answer:

DNA is double stranded and contains thymine while RNA is single stranded and contains uracil

Explanation:

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded, contains thymine

RNA: ribonucleic acid, single stranded, contains uracil

Example Question #26 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

What is the process by which a protein is produced from an RNA code?

Possible Answers:

Translation

Transcription

Evolution

Polypeptide

Correct answer:

Translation

Explanation:

RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein.

Example Question #27 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

What is a gene?

Possible Answers:

The basic functional genetic unit that is responsible for an organism’s traits

A chromosome

A polypeptide chain produced by the ribosome

A polypeptide

Correct answer:

The basic functional genetic unit that is responsible for an organism’s traits

Explanation:

DNA is organized into functional units, called genes that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. Genes are found on chromosomes.

Example Question #28 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

Consider the following analogy: RNA:transcription::Protein:______________

Possible Answers:

Replication

Transcription

Translation

Cell division

Correct answer:

Translation

Explanation:

RNA is produced by transcription while proteins are produced by translation.

Example Question #29 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

What is a ribosome?

Possible Answers:

An organelle within a eukaryotic cell that is responsible for transcription of a protein

An organelle within a eukaryotic cell that is responsible for translation of protein

An organelle within a cell that is responsible for translation of an RNA

An organelle within a eukaryotic cells that is responsible for DNA replication

Correct answer:

An organelle within a eukaryotic cell that is responsible for translation of protein

Explanation:

RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein.

Example Question #311 : Biology

Eukaryotic cells, cells that contain membrane-bound organelles and generally reside within multicellular organisms, contain DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is organized into chromosomes. DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that forms a double helix. The bases found within a DNA molecule are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). DNA is organized into functional units, called genes, that encode the basic traits and characteristics of living organisms. DNA can be replicated within the nucleus prior to cell division to ensure each daughter cell receives an identical copy of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed to RNA which is then translated into protein. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid found in all cells that serves a messenger to carry the genetic code from DNA to produce a functional molecule, the protein. RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid and consists of the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). RNA is translated into amino acids on the ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain, or a protein. There are two general hypotheses for the original evolutionary molecule. The “RNA world” hypothesis states that the original genetic molecule is RNA, and RNA was able to be translated into protein and reverse transcribed to produce DNA. Alternatively, the “DNA, RNA, and Protein World” suggests that DNA was the original genetic molecule and was responsible for subsequent production of RNA and protein.

Where is DNA found within a cell?

Possible Answers:

Polypeptide

Nucleus

Ribosome

Cell membrane

Correct answer:

Nucleus

Explanation:

DNA is located within a cell's nucleus where it can be replicated to generate another set of DNA or transcribed into RNA.

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