SAT II Biology M : Macromolecules

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II Biology M

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Lipids

The phospholipid bilayer is critically important to the separation of the internal and external environment of the cell.

What drives the formation of the phospholipid bilayer?

Possible Answers:

The external environment pushes non-polar hydrophilic fatty acid tails to form the inner layer and the polar hydrophilic head groups to form the outer layer.

The external environment pushes non-polar hydrophobic fatty acid tails to form the inner layer and the polar hydrophobic head groups to form the outer layer.

The external environment pushes non-polar hydrophilic fatty acid tails to form the inner layer and the polar hydrophobic head groups to form the outer layer.

None of these

The external environment pushes non-polar hydrophobic fatty acid tails to form the inner layer and the polar hydrophilic head groups to form the outer layer.

Correct answer:

The external environment pushes non-polar hydrophobic fatty acid tails to form the inner layer and the polar hydrophilic head groups to form the outer layer.

Explanation:

The external hydrophilic environment attracts polar hydrophilic phosphate head groups to the exterior, while allowing non-polar hydrophobic fatty acids to remain shielded in the interior of what becomes the phospholipid bilayer.

Example Question #1 : Lipids

Lipids are made up of hydrocarbons linked to each other. 

A hydrocarbon involves an atom of carbon with how many hydrogen atoms bonded to it?

Possible Answers:

Five

Four

Three

One

Two

Correct answer:

Two

Explanation:

A hydrocarbon is made up of a carbon and two hydrogen atoms attached to it.

Example Question #1 : Lipids

Which of the following macromolecules are composed of long chains of amino acids?

Possible Answers:

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic acids

Fats

Carbohydrates

Correct answer:

Proteins

Explanation:

By process of elimination, lipids and fats cannot be the correct answer-they are synonymous (lipids are also known as fats). Carbohydrates, eg sugars and starches are composed only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Nucleic acids contribute to DNA and RNA structure and function. The correct answer is proteins, made of long chains of amino acids-amino acids are sometimes called the "building blocks" of proteins. 

Example Question #11 : Macromolecules

Nucleic acids carry the information of what your cells will do. An example of a nucleic acid would be which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Asparagine

RNA

Cellulose

Carbon 

Correct answer:

RNA

Explanation:

Examples of nucleic acids include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Because DNA is not an answer choice, we know that the correct answer in this problem must be RNA. Cellulose is a carbohydrate, asparagine is an amino acid, and carbon is an element. 

Example Question #11 : Macromolecules

Which of the following is not involved in DNA synthesis?

Possible Answers:

Guanine

Thymine

Adenine

Cytosine

Uracil

Correct answer:

Uracil

Explanation:

Uracil is a base utilized in RNA synthesis, whereas adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine are utilized in DNA synthesis.

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