European History : Social and Economic History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Agriculture

Of the following, crop rotation, mechanization, and the seed drill are most closely associated with the ______________.

Possible Answers:

Green Revolution

Neolithic Revolution

Bolshevik Revolution

Second Agricultural Revolution

First Agricultural Revolution

Correct answer:

Second Agricultural Revolution

Explanation:

The Second Agricultural Revolution, which occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe alongside the Industrial Revolution, included all these things. Improved crop rotation systems, the increased use of machinery in agriculture, and Jethro Tull's horse-drawn seed drill contributed to greatly increased food production.

The Neolithic Revolution and First Agricultural Revolution are the same event. They refer to the ancient beginnings of agriculture, an event that made it possible for formerly nomadic tribes to create permanent settlements.

The Green Revolution is more recent (1970's) and includes the use of genetically-modified crops.

The Bolshevik Revolution was the Communist Revolution in Russia that overthrew the Czar in 1917.

Example Question #1 : Social And Economic History

Which one of these nations is a member of the European Union but does not use the Euro as its currency?

Possible Answers:

France

Italy

The United Kingdom

Greece

Germany

Correct answer:

The United Kingdom

Explanation:

The United Kingdom has continued to use the British Pound as its currency, despite being a member of the European Union. The other nations do use the Euro, and are therefore incorrect.

Example Question #2 : Commerce; Economics; Market Competition

Which of the following is counted among the founders of modern economics, and advocated for the concept of the Invisible Hand?

Possible Answers:

John Locke

Voltaire

Karl Marx

Adam Smith

Jonathon Swift

Correct answer:

Adam Smith

Explanation:

Karl Marx most assuredly did not believe in the Invisible Hand, nor did he invent the concept, so he would not be a good choice. Voltaire was not particularly interested in the study of economics, so he would not be a good answer here. John Locke was a philosopher but he did not invent the concept of the Invisible Hand, so he would not be the correct answer. Jonathan Swift was a satirist, but he did not study economics as a discipline, so he would not be the best answer. Lastly, Adam Smith did both of the things in question, so he would be the best answer.

Example Question #1 : Social And Economic History

An economic system in which the state promotes nationalism by encouraging exports and discouraging imports is called _________________.

Possible Answers:

socialism

mutualism 

mercantilism 

capitalism

state capitalism

Correct answer:

mercantilism 

Explanation:

Mercantilism was the dominant economic system in Europe's colonial powers from the 16th to the 18th century. The government would regulate the nation's economy, particularly its trade relations, to advance the state's interest and weaken its rival nations.

Example Question #1 : Social And Economic History

Which event was most responsible for the decrease in Europe's population between 1300 and 1400 CE?

Possible Answers:

The Hundred Years War

Low birth rates

The Crusades

Emigration to the New World

The Bubonic Plague

Correct answer:

The Bubonic Plague

Explanation:

The Bubonic Plague ravaged the population of Europe between 1347-1352. Although precise statistics are not available, many estimates allege that the disease may have killed up to 1/3 of the population of Europe.

Example Question #1 : Gender

Which leading Baroque artist was the first woman admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence?

Possible Answers:

Mary Shelley

Laura Cereta

Lucretia Borgia

Artemisia Gentileschi

Correct answer:

Artemisia Gentileschi

Explanation:

Artemisia Gentileschi is regarded as one of the leading artists of the baroque period and is generally considered to be one of the most progressive artists of her time period. She made a notable impact regarding gender equality in her native Italy when she became the first woman to be admitted into the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence in the first half of the seventeenth century.

Example Question #2 : Gender

Which of these European countries has (as of 2016) yet to elect a female ruler?

Possible Answers:

Germany

Italy

Great Britain

Turkey

Correct answer:

Italy

Explanation:

Of these nations, only Italy has yet to democratically elect a female political leader. Margaret Thatcher served as Prime Minister in the United Kingdom during the 1980s; Tansu Ciller was Prime Minister of Turkey during the 1990s; Angela Merkel was elected the Prime Minister of Germany in 2005; Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo served as Prime Minister of Portugal in 1979. Italy has never elected a female political leader. The same is true of Spain, Sweden, and Greece.

Example Question #1 : Gender

Joan of Arc was mostly famous for her role in the ______________.

Possible Answers:

the French Revolutionary Wars

the Crusades

the War of the Roses

the Hundred Years War

the Seven Year's War

Correct answer:

the Hundred Years War

Explanation:

Joan of Arc is famous for having fought in the Hundred Years War, a long-lasting battle between England and France for the French kingdom. Initially joining the conflict by posing as a man, Joan of Arc rose to become an inspirational figure for the French armies. The other answers are incorrect because they occurred either before or after Joan's time.

Example Question #1 : Gender

What changes did the Renaissance bring for women?

Possible Answers:

Women lost the right to divorce, but gained the right to have their own money

Women gained power economically, but stayed the same socially

Women’s status did not change very much during the Renaissance

Women had the same rights as men 

Women were allowed to go to school and own property if they were unmarried

Correct answer:

Women’s status did not change very much during the Renaissance

Explanation:

Unfortunately, women’s status did not change dramatically during the Renaissance. For the most part their lived were the same as during the Middle Ages- they had no legal rights, were the legal subjects of their husbands and their duty in life was to be a care for the children and be a good housewife. For poor peasants, this meant working in the fields, for middle class people that often meant working in their husband’s shop, for the upper class this was often sewing, cooking and entertaining. Women were not allowed to live alone, and if they did not marry, they had to live with a male relative or join a convent.  

Example Question #111 : European History

Which of these statements accurately describes the state of income disparity in Vladimir Putin's time as the ruler of Russia (as both Prime Minister and President)?

Possible Answers:

The gap between the wealthy and poor has widened dramatically as the funding of basic social services has been slashed

The gap between the wealthy and the poor has increased slightly

The gap between the wealthy and poor has shrunk dramatically as the funding of basic social services has increased

The gap between the wealthy and poor has remained stable

Correct answer:

The gap between the wealthy and poor has widened dramatically as the funding of basic social services has been slashed

Explanation:

It was actually Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks and later the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, who mandated that schooling be carried out in whichever native language was familiar to the students in that part of the wide-ranging Soviet empire. During Putin’s reign the gap between the wealthy and the poor has widened dramatically. Putin has, infamously, enriched the oligarchs of Russia at the expense of the rest of society. Universal healthcare has been in place in the Russian Federation since 1996, three years before Putin took office.

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