AP World History : Political Protest, Reforms, and Revolution 1900 to Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #51 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1900 To Present

Select the primary and most influential outcome of the Chinese 1916-1919 May Fourth Movement.

Possible Answers:

A resurgence in intellectualism and foreign political ideology

The creation of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

The signing of a peace treaty between Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek

An economic and political alliance with Leninist Russia

The seizure and annexation of Taiwan and Tibet

Correct answer:

The creation of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

Explanation:

The May Fourth Movement takes its name from massive public protests that occurred throughout May 1919, in which thousands of students, young intellectuals, and tradespeople gathered to protest their government’s interactions with and accommodations of foreign powers. The seeds of this dissatisfaction were first sown by the Treaty of Versailles (which ended World War One), whose terms were largely unfavorable to China. Many Chinese people were especially incensed by the Treaty’s awarding of disputed territories to Japan – this furor was only increased by the Chinese government’s apparent easy acquiescence to the Treaty’s demands. It was this explosion of nationalistic and anti-foreign sentiment that set off the May Fourth Movement, as more and more individuals began to call for an end to their current leadership, whose ranks, they felt, were far too dominated by foreign appeasers and isolated intellectuals. Many of these protesters were inspired by the recent populist and socialist systems then being employed by Lenin’s Russia. The most vital and long-lasting consequence of this movement was the creation of the Communist Party of China (CPC), which was founded by many of these student protesters and young, disaffected scholars. The ensuing chaos would eventually lead to the Chinese Civil War and the CPC’s subsequent victory and political dominance under Mao Zedong.

Example Question #52 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1900 To Present

What was the Shah of Iran’s chief intention for his White Revolution program?

Possible Answers:

To expel foreign influences

The destruction of internal communist influences

To rid Iran of religious fundamentalists

The country-wide institution of Sharia law

To recruit young clerics into the government’s ranks

Correct answer:

The destruction of internal communist influences

Explanation:

Launched by the Shah of Iran in 1963, the White Revolution was intended to rid the country of suspected communists, whom the Shah blamed for his massive unpopularity among the Iranian population. In practice, the White Revolution consisted of several reforms (including the expansion of women’s education, a decrease in state-owned corporations, and land redistribution). The Shah hoped that these measures would increase his popularity among Iran’s poor, working, and middle classes, while at the same time undermining the intellectuals and wealthy individuals who disagreed with many of his governing policies. However, the Shah’s White Revolution had precisely the opposite consequences from those he’d intended. In fact, many Iranians objected to the Shah’s changes, which they saw as being pro-Western and too anti-traditionalist in nature. The widespread disapproval of the White Revolution would play a significant factor in the later overthrow of the Shah during the 1979 Iranian Revolution.

Example Question #53 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1900 To Present

This policy of internal reform was brought wide sweeping changes to the structure and policies of the Soviet Union. 

Possible Answers:

socialism 

supply-side economics 

gorbachev 

glasnost 

perestroika 

Correct answer:

perestroika 

Explanation:

Perestroika, which literally translates to 'restructuring' in Russian, was the policy of wide-ranging internal reforms within Soviet society under Mikhail Gorbachev and included both political and economic reforms. 

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