AP Psychology : Evolutionary Principles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Evolutionary Principles

What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?

Possible Answers:

Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital 

Medial, Lateral, Anterior, Posterior

Topical, Anterograde, Retrograde, Dorsal

Occipital, Ventral, Frontal, Temporal

Frontal, Dorsal, Ventral, Parietal

Correct answer:

Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital 

Explanation:

The brain's four lobes are the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe. Each lobe exists in a distinct part of the cerebral cortex and serves a different primary function. The frontal lobe is located toward the front of the brain, directlly behind the forehead, and is used to process higher level thinking such as conscious thought. The temporal lobe is located toward the outside of the head, behind the temple and ears, and is responsible for auditory processing. The parietal lobe is located superior to (above) the temporal lobe at the top of the head and is primarily responsible for processing motor and sensory functions. The occipital lobe is located at the back of the head and processes visual signals.

Example Question #2 : Evolutionary Principles

What structure connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex?

Possible Answers:

Grey matter

The precentral gyrus

The hypothalmic membrane

The central sulcus

The corpus callosum

Correct answer:

The corpus callosum

Explanation:

The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebal cortex. Its main purpose is to facilitate communication between the two hemispheres.

The precentral gyrus and central sulcus are topical features of the brain (a ridge and a groove, respectively) that separate the frontal and parietal lobes.

Example Question #3 : Evolutionary Principles

Which part of the brain helps coordinate movement?

Possible Answers:

The amygdala

The focal gyrus

The spinal cord

The cerebellum

The frontal lobe

Correct answer:

The cerebellum

Explanation:

The cerebellum, located in the rear of the brainstem, helps coordinate our voluntary movements and helps us maintain balance.

Example Question #4 : Evolutionary Principles

Which part of the brain controls our breathing?

Possible Answers:

The occipital lobe

The thalamus

The reticular formation

The medulla oblongata

The amygdala

Correct answer:

The medulla oblongata

Explanation:

The medulla oblongata controls our breathing and heart rate. It is located at the base of the brainstem. Note that most structures in the brainstem are associated with essential, involuntary functions.

Example Question #5 : Evolutionary Principles

Which part of the brain is responsible for complex decision-making and has become paritcularly well-developed in humans?

Possible Answers:

The amygdala

The occipital lobe

The parietal lobe

The frontal lobe

The temporal lobe

Correct answer:

The frontal lobe

Explanation:

The frontal lobe, specifically the prefrontal cortex, is involved in complex decision-making and making goal-oriented plans. 

Example Question #192 : Biology

Which of the following is a core tenet of evolutionary psychology?

Possible Answers:

Natural selection

Conscious processing

Free association

Genetic modification

Unconditional positive regard

Correct answer:

Natural selection

Explanation:

Natural selection is the theory that certain traits become more or less common in a population based on its reproductive success in a group of organisms. Evolutionary (sometimes called Darwinian) psychology studies human thought in the context of Darwinian evolution.

Example Question #7 : Evolutionary Principles

What are chromsones made of?

Possible Answers:

Proteins

All of these

Genetic information

DNA

Genes

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Chromosomes are complex structures that contain a molecule of DNA and a protein. DNA strands contain genetic information. 

Example Question #193 : Biology

According to the principle of natural selection, which genes are most likely to get passed on?

Possible Answers:

Those that manifest in high practical intelligence

Those that are most likely to increase survival and reproduction

Those that are likely to increase the neural regeneration

Those that manifest in high physical attractiveness

Those that are exclusively likely to increase reproduction

Correct answer:

Those that are most likely to increase survival and reproduction

Explanation:

Darwin's principle of natural selection holds that the genes most likely to increase the chance of survival and reproduction are also the most likely to be passed on. Survival and reproduction are the fundamental basis of Darwin's principles.

Example Question #6 : Evolutionary Principles

What is a common factor among human beings?

Possible Answers:

The ability to eat dairy products

Nurturing instinct

Sympathy

Use of language

Empathy

Correct answer:

Use of language

Explanation:

There are many dimensions that make the human species united as well as many that differentiate humans from one another One factor that unites humans is the imperative to use language, a trait that has evolved over time to help us communicate and coexist with one another. Other common factors among humans are biological heritage, brain architecture, and social behavior. The ability to eat dairy products and experience empathy are not common to all people, as some people are lactose intolerant, and some are psychopathic, and largely incapable of empathy and sympathy. While a nurturing instinct is extremely common, it is not considered a universally common human trait.

Example Question #10 : Evolutionary Principles

Which of the following is a differentiating characteristic within the human species?

Possible Answers:

The endocrine system

Familial upbringing

The predisposition to learn/acquire a language

The inclination to be social 

The general structure of our brains

Correct answer:

Familial upbringing

Explanation:

The human species is united on many fronts, namely our social bonding tendencies, inherited mental structures, biological origins, and the predisposition to acquire language. Of course there are exceptions to this, as a variety of disorders may affect our abilities to acquire language, bond socially, or the development of our cognitive functions. These traits are, however, widely observable in the majority of the human species.

The dimensions that make most of us different from one another, both at the individual and societal level, have to do with our personalities, familial upbringing, cultures, and personal interests.

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