ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Sleep plays a vital role in defining the daily activities of virtually all animals. During periods of sleep, the parasympathetic nervous system becomes active and induces a relaxed state in response to increased levels of the hormone melatonin. Yet, despite its ubiquity in the animal kingdom, the purpose of sleep and its role in our daily lives has been disputed by scientists. Two scientists discuss their theories about the purpose of sleep.

Scientist 1

During periods of sleep, animals are able to conserve energy that they would otherwise be spending on unnecessary activity. If an animal’s primary food source is most abundant during daylight, it is a waste of precious energy to be moving about at night. For example, many herbivores, such as squirrels, are diurnal (sleep during the night) because their food source is available during the day, while many insectivores, such as bats, are nocturnal (sleep during the day) because their food source is available during the night. Food sources, as an animal’s most valuable resource, dictate their sleep cycles. Many animal traits observable today evolved as a result of the supply and demand of food in their natural habitat.

Scientist 2

During waking hours, it is true that the body utilizes large amounts of energy. However, the role of sleep is to restore biological products that were utilized during periods of wakefulness, rather than simply avoid utilizing energy in the first place. Many types of biological molecules, such as hormones, are released throughout the body while an animal is active. Sleep serves as a period of inactivity during which the body can manufacture and store a supply of these molecules for future use during the next period of activity. Furthermore, sleep allows the body to repair cellular damages that has accumulated during waking hours. Experimental evidence shows that when animals are deprived of sleep, their immune system quickly weakens and death rates increase. Sleep is necessary for animals to prevent accumulation of damage and to regenerate crucial biomolecules for daily life.

Both scientists give evidence to support their theories. The evidence given by Scientist 1 can best be described as __________.

Possible Answers:

observational

empirical

quantitative

experimental

natural

Correct answer:

observational

Explanation:

Scientist 1 gives two examples of animals that appear to follow the trends of his theory. "For example, many herbivores, such as squirrels, are diurnal . . . while many insectivores, such as bats, are nocturnal"

This evidence is strictly observational. There is no experimental set-up, quantitative or empirical data. Though the evidence is observation of animals in their natural state, observational is a commonly used classification of evidence, while natural is not, making observational the best answer choice.

Example Question #2 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Sleep plays a vital role in defining the daily activities of virtually all animals. During periods of sleep, the parasympathetic nervous system becomes active and induces a relaxed state in response to increased levels of the hormone melatonin. Yet, despite its ubiquity in the animal kingdom, the purpose of sleep and its role in our daily lives has been disputed by scientists. Two scientists discuss their theories about the purpose of sleep.

Scientist 1

During periods of sleep, animals are able to conserve energy that they would otherwise be spending on unnecessary activity. If an animal’s primary food source is most abundant during daylight, it is a waste of precious energy to be moving about at night. For example, many herbivores, such as squirrels, are diurnal (sleep during the night) because their food source is available during the day, while many insectivores, such as bats, are nocturnal (sleep during the day) because their food source is available during the night. Food sources, as an animal’s most valuable resource, dictate their sleep cycles. Many animal traits observable today evolved as a result of the supply and demand of food in their natural habitat.

Scientist 2

During waking hours, it is true that the body utilizes large amounts of energy. However, the role of sleep is to restore biological products that were utilized during periods of wakefulness, rather than simply avoid utilizing energy in the first place. Many types of biological molecules, such as hormones, are released throughout the body while an animal is active. Sleep serves as a period of inactivity during which the body can manufacture and store a supply of these molecules for future use during the next period of activity. Furthermore, sleep allows the body to repair cellular damages that has accumulated during waking hours. Experimental evidence shows that when animals are deprived of sleep, their immune system quickly weakens and death rates increase. Sleep is necessary for animals to prevent accumulation of damage and to regenerate crucial biomolecules for daily life.

Both scientists give evidence to support their theories. The evidence given by Scientist 2 can best be described as __________.

Possible Answers:

observational

theoretical

quantitative

experimental

situational

Correct answer:

experimental

Explanation:

The evidence given by Scientist 2 is labeled within the passage. "Experimental evidence shows that when animals are deprived of sleep, their immune system quickly weakens and death rates increase"

Example Question #3 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Dominant alleles (D) produce dominant characteristics; recessive alleles (d) produce recessive characteristics.  Dominant alleles are expressed whenever present (DD, Dd) but recessive alleles are expressed only when the dominant allele is absent (dd) 

A study was done in which the visual traits of two plants and their offspring was tested.  In this study, Plant A, a Tall Purple plant, was mated with Plant B, a Tall Pink plant.  In previous generations Plant A’s parents were always tall but were sometimes pink.  Plant B’s parents were sometimes tall or short and sometimes were pink or purple.  It has been determined that the dominant trait for height is tall (H) and the dominant trait for color is purple (P). 

Breeding both plants will result in offspring that have recessive and dominant traits.  The chart below contains all the possibilities for their offspring.  

Figure 1.

Parent A

Parent B

Tall (HH)

Tall (Hh)

Purple (Pp)

Pink (pp)

 

Figure 2.                   HH Pp x Hh pp    Offspring

 

HP

HP

Hp

Hp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

 

 What traits would an offspring have with hh PP alleles?  

Possible Answers:

Tall and pink

Short and pink 

Tall and purple

Short and purple

Correct answer:

Short and purple

Explanation:

The plant will be short and purple. Since hh are both recessive, there are no dominant genes to make the plant tall; thus the plant will be short. Since P is dominant, the plant must be purple since it has both dominant genes.  

Example Question #1 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Dominant alleles (D) produce dominant characteristics; recessive alleles (d) produce recessive characteristics.  Dominant alleles are expressed whenever present (DD, Dd) but recessive alleles are expressed only when the dominant allele is absent (dd) 

A study was done in which the visual traits of two plants and their offspring was tested.  In this study, Plant A, a Tall Purple plant, was mated with Plant B, a Tall Pink plant.  In previous generations Plant A’s parents were always tall but were sometimes pink.  Plant B’s parents were sometimes tall or short and sometimes were pink or purple.  It has been determined that the dominant trait for height is tall (H) and the dominant trait for color is purple (P). 

Breeding both plants will result in offspring that have recessive and dominant traits.  The chart below contains all the possibilities for their offspring. 

Figure 1.

Parent A

Parent B

Tall (HH)

Tall (Hh)

Purple (Pp)

Pink (pp)

 

Figure 2.                     HH Pp x Hh pp    Offspring

 

HP

HP

Hp

Hp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

 

What is the probability that the offspring in Figure 2 will be tall and purple? 

Possible Answers:

0%

75%

25%

100%

50%

Correct answer:

50%

Explanation:

The sets of alleles that are labeled HHPp or HhPp are the only possibilities to have a plant that is tall and purple. Since 8 out of the 16 possibilities are of such, there is a 50% probability.   

Example Question #5 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Dominant alleles (D) produce dominant characteristics; recessive alleles (d) produce recessive characteristics.  Dominant alleles are expressed whenever present (DD, Dd) but recessive alleles are expressed only when the dominant allele is absent (dd) 

A study was done in which the visual traits of two plants and their offspring was tested.  In this study, Plant A, a Tall Purple plant, was mated with Plant B, a Tall Pink plant.  In previous generations Plant A’s parents were always tall but were sometimes pink.  Plant B’s parents were sometimes tall or short and sometimes were pink or purple.  It has been determined that the dominant trait for height is tall (H) and the dominant trait for color is purple (P). 

Breeding both plants will result in offspring that have recessive and dominant traits.  The chart below contains all the possibilities for their offspring. 

Figure 1.

Parent A

Parent B

Tall (HH)

Tall (Hh)

Purple (Pp)

Pink (pp)

 

Figure 2.                     HH Pp x Hh pp    Offspring

 

HP

HP

Hp

Hp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

What is the ratio of pink plants to purple plants? 

Possible Answers:

1 : 1

2 : 1

1 : 2

1 : 4

4 : 1

Correct answer:

1 : 1

Explanation:

The ratio of pink to purple is 1 : 1. There are just as many pink (8pp) to purple (8Pp). Thus when reduced, 8 : 8 turns to 1 : 1.  

Example Question #6 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Dominant alleles (D) produce dominant characteristics; recessive alleles (d) produce recessive characteristics.  Dominant alleles are expressed whenever present (DD, Dd) but recessive alleles are expressed only when the dominant allele is absent (dd) 

A study was done in which the visual traits of two plants and their offspring was tested.  In this study, Plant A, a Tall Purple plant, was mated with Plant B, a Tall Pink plant.  It has been determined that the dominant trait for height is tall (H) and the dominant trait for color is purple (P). 

Breeding both plants will result in offspring that have recessive and dominant traits.  The chart below contains all the possibilities for their offspring. 

Figure 1.

Parent A

Parent B

Tall (HH)

Tall (Hh)

Purple (Pp)

Pink (pp)

 

Figure 2.                     HH Pp x Hh pp    Offspring

 

HP

HP

Hp

Hp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

Hp

HHPp

HHPp

HHpp

HHpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

hp

HhPp

HhPp

Hhpp

Hhpp

Why are there no short offspring? 

Possible Answers:

Both parents are tall so the offspring automatically have to be tall.

Parent B has a dominant gene; it is the only gene that can get passed down to its offspring.  

Parent A has two dominant genes; it can only pass down dominant genes to its offspring.

All purple plants are tall.

Correct answer:

Parent A has two dominant genes; it can only pass down dominant genes to its offspring.

Explanation:

The answer is Parent A has two dominant genes, it can only pass down dominant genes to its offspring. No matter what parent A can do, it can only give a dominant allele that makes the offspring shows a tall trait.  

Example Question #7 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

A group of scientists wanted to test the effects of Nitra-Grow, a chemical additive that can be given to plants to help them grow.  3 test groups of plants were given all the same time of sunlight, the same type of soil, and the same amount of water.  Plant A was given no extra chemicals.  Plant B was given 5g of Nitra-Grow.  Plant C was given 5g of Ammonia to see if Nitra-Grow worked any better than a basic nitrogen-based household product.  The plants are then measured on 5 consecutive days to find their average height (in cm).

DAY

Height Plant A (cm)

Height Plant B (cm)

Height Plant C (cm)

1

1.2

1.2

1.2

2

1.4

1.4

1.2

3

1.6

1.8

1.3

4

1.8

2.4

1.3

5

2.0

2.6

1.4

Suppose on day 6, here are the results of each of the 3 plants.

Plant A

Plant B

Plant C

2.2

1.5

1.4

What could you say about the effectiveness of Nitra-Grow?

Possible Answers:

Nitro-Grow is very effective. The plants increased in height every day

Nitro-Grow is not effective. Even though the plants increased in height until day 5, there was a drastic decrease on day 6.  

Nitro-Grow is somewhat effective. Plant B was not the smallest plant after 6 days.  

Nitro-Grow is not effective. The plants decreased in height every day.

Correct answer:

Nitro-Grow is not effective. Even though the plants increased in height until day 5, there was a drastic decrease on day 6.  

Explanation:

The answer is Nitro-Grow is not effective.  Even though the plants increased in height until day 5, there was a drastic decrease on day 6.  The chemical is NOT effective because day 6 shows that Plant B has wilted away and is decreasing in size.  

Example Question #8 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

 

 

Varsitytutor 

 

The chart above shows the height growth of three different plant species after a period of 2 weeks. Each plant species was grown in 4 different soil mediums. All the plants were grown in the same environment with equal amounts of light, water, and oxygen. 

Based on the chart above, which plant species was consistently taller than the other plant species regardless of soil medium?

Possible Answers:

This information cannot be determined. 

Plant 1

All three plants grew at equally consistent heights. 

Plant 2

Plant 3

Correct answer:

Plant 3

Explanation:

After reading the chart, it is clear that Plant 3 was taller than Plant 1 and Plant 2 at every measurement point.

Example Question #2 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

 

 Varsitytutor

The chart above shows the height growth of three different plant species after a period of 2 weeks. Each plant species was grown in 4 different soil mediums. All the plants were grown in the same environment with equal amounts of light, water, and oxygen.

Which soil medium provides the tallest plant growth? 

Possible Answers:

Medium B

Medium C

Cannot be determined 

Medium A

Medium D

Correct answer:

Medium D

Explanation:

The medium providing the tallest plant growth would be medium D, because in all three plants reached their greatest height using medium D. 

Example Question #10 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8–12:

Enzyme_activity_chart

What are the optimal conditions (temperature and pH) for enzyme A?

Possible Answers:

9C; pH = 60

60C; pH = 9

45C; pH = 5

5C; pH = 45

Correct answer:

45C; pH = 5

Explanation:

The vertex for Enzyme A occurs at 45 degrees C and pH 5 indicated these are the optimal conditions for the enzyme to function.

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