Sociology : Sociology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Sociology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Social Change

What is the correct order of the four stages of social movement growth and development?

Possible Answers:

decline stage, preliminary stage, coalescence stage, institutionalization stage

preliminary stage, institutionalization stage, coalescence stage, decline stage

institutionalization stage, decline stage, coalescence stage, decline stage

preliminary stage, institutionalization stage, decline stage, coalescence stage

preliminary stage, coalescence stage, institutionalization stage, decline stage

Correct answer:

preliminary stage, coalescence stage, institutionalization stage, decline stage

Explanation:

The four stages of social movement development in order are: preliminary stage, coalescence stage, institutionalization stage, decline stage. In the preliminary stage, people begin to become aware of an issue and leaders begin to emerge. In the coalescence stage, people join together to raise awareness of an issue. In the institutionalization stage, groups become formalized often with paid staff and resources. In the decline stage, groups begin to weaken as people fall away.

Example Question #1 : Social Change

Which of the following is a related to the collective action problem?

Possible Answers:

Free-rider problem

Geography curse

Authoritarianism

Natural resource curse

Correct answer:

Free-rider problem

Explanation:

The collective action problem describes the overall challenge that social movements face when attempting to mobilize groups of people. The free-rider problem is related to the collective action problem in that it describes how an individual may find it easier to "free ride" (in other words, reap the benefits collective action can bring without incurring the costs of participating) than to join collective action efforts. 

Example Question #1 : Social Movements

Which of the following best represents when political violence is most likely to occur?

Possible Answers:

Aggravating parties have the resources and organization

Aggravated parties are not democratic

Aggravated parties are poor and lack organization

Aggravated parties do not share the same ideology

Correct answer:

Aggravating parties have the resources and organization

Explanation:

According to resource mobilization theory, the use of political violence is costly on various fronts and therefore requires much in the disciplined organization and material resources. Without the resources and organization required it is extremely difficult for social movements to make the violence count for social change. 

Example Question #2 : Social Movements

A purposely organized group working for a shared social goal is a __________.

Possible Answers:

crowd

none of the other answer choices

flash mob

social movement

public

Correct answer:

social movement

Explanation:

A social movement is a purposely organized group working to a shared or common social goal. A public is an unorganized, diffuse group of people who share similar ideas. A flash mob is a group of people who come together to do a spontaneous activity that lasts for a short time. A crowd is a large group of people in close physical proximity.

Example Question #1 : Social Movements

Mother's Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is an example of which type of social movement?

Possible Answers:

none of the other answer choices

reform movement

religious movements

revolutionary Movement

resistance movements

Correct answer:

reform movement

Explanation:

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is a reform movement because they seek change one specific thing in society — drunk driving. Revolutionary movements seek to overthrow society by changing every aspect of it. Religious movements seek inner change or redemption of individuals. Resistance movements seek to resist or undue change in society.

Example Question #1 : Population, Urbanization, And The Environment

Which of the following is not a positive consequence of gentrification?

Possible Answers:

Increased social mix

Increased community consumption and economic stimulation

Reduction in crime and vandalism 

Increased property values

Increased homelessness and displacement of individuals

Correct answer:

Increased homelessness and displacement of individuals

Explanation:

Gentrification has been referred to as urban renewal and occurs when an area is revitalized by a pioneering group of individuals. These groups may make a particular community more desirable. Afterwards, entrepreneurs invest in local businesses and housing. This revitalizes an area, which results in a reduction in crime, increased property values, an increase in the social mix of the community, and a greater opportunity for community consumption and economic stimulation. On the other hand, the economic increases in the area may make properties too expensive for the original inhabitants. This displaces individuals and may cause community tensions and increased rates of homelessness. 

Example Question #1 : Work, Consumption, And The Economy

Which of the following is not an example of unpaid labor?

Possible Answers:

Unpaid internships

Domestic labor

None of these

Volunteer work

Forced labor

Correct answer:

None of these

Explanation:

"None of these" is the correct answer. Unpaid work is work that is done without compensation. In "unpaid internships," students work for a company in return for experience not money. "Domestic labor" is unpaid but necessary in order for a household to function. Feminists claim that the pay gap between men and women is increased when domestic labor by housewives is taken into account. They postulate that women work as much as men; however, their work is not compensated monetarily and is seen as insignificant in respect to the outside views of the family. THis is despite its necessary function and utility value. Likewise, "volunteer work" for charitable corporations and "forced labor" are unpaid. 

Example Question #1 : Sociology

Dependency theory is a response to which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Convergence theory

Integration theory

Modernization theory

Social identity theory

Correct answer:

Modernization theory

Explanation:

Dependency Theory was developed by sociologists in Latin America who argued that Modernization Theory was wrong in that not all countries can modernize through the same processes. Dependency theorists argue that global flow of resources makes it so that underdeveloped countries are dependent upon and exploited by developed countries, therefore are they continually at a disadvantage when it comes to industrial development. 

Example Question #1 : Education And Society

All of the following are considered manifest functions of education except __________.

Possible Answers:

socialization

social networking

social control

social placement

none of the other answer choices

Correct answer:

social networking

Explanation:

Socialization, social control, and social placement are all manifest functions of education. Socialization refers to learning how to become an adult. Social control is learning to obey rules and laws of society, and social placement refers to the fact that education can provide a tool for upward social and economic mobility. Social networking is considered a latent function of education. Social networking refers to students' social contacts that might help a student find a job after finishing school.

Example Question #1 : Religion And Society

What term best matches the definition for a concurrent marriage of one male and at least two females?

 

Possible Answers:

polylateral

polytheism

polyandry

polygyny

Correct answer:

polygyny

Explanation:

Polygyny occurs when a man has more than one wife. Polytheism is worshiping more than one god. Polyandry is when a woman has more that one husband at the same time. Polylateral refers to developing countries sharing knowledge among each other. 

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