SAT II World History : Russian Revolution and the Cold War

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #63 : 1900 C.E. To Present

The Domino Theory states which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Once one country falls under the influence of communism, the neighboring countries are likely to follow. 

The United States has a duty to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe.

Two democratic countries will never go to war with each other.

Communism and capitalism can never mutually coexist in the world and will always be in conflict.

The impact of communism can never spread into Europe because wealthy nations will have no reason to embrace an end to private property.

Correct answer:

Once one country falls under the influence of communism, the neighboring countries are likely to follow. 

Explanation:

The Domino Theory became an important part of American foreign policy during the Cold War. It states that once one country falls under the influence of communism, there is a heightened chance that its neighboring countries will also succumb. It was the main motivation behind several of the United States' conflicts in the twentieth century such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

Example Question #1 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

Why might Karl Marx have been surprised that communism first took off in Russia?

Possible Answers:

Russia had a long history of democratic institutions designed to prevent such a revolution.

The monarchy was stronger in Russia than in the rest of Europe.

The Russian economy at the time was much less developed than that of Britain or Germany.

The Russians were engaged in a war, and the communist revolution was meant to take place during a time of relative peace.

Marx expected that a communist revolution could never actually happen and wrote his piece in a theoretical, utopian sense.

Correct answer:

The Russian economy at the time was much less developed than that of Britain or Germany.

Explanation:

Karl Marx, writer of The Communist Manifesto, expected the communist revolution to take place first in Britain, Germany, or the United States. That it should happen first in Russia, a comparably undeveloped country, would have been a massive surprise to Marx. 

Example Question #1 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

The Warsaw Pact was formed between __________.

Possible Answers:

Poland and Russia against German invasion

the capitalist nations of Asia

the communist nations of Eastern Europe

the capitalist nations of Europe

the communist nations of Asia

Correct answer:

the communist nations of Eastern Europe

Explanation:

In the aftermath of World War II, the allied powers and several other democratic nations formed NATO, an agreement to provide for the cooperative growth of capitalist societies and to counter the rising threat of Soviet influence. The Warsaw Pact was formed shortly after as a countermeasure. It incorporated all the communist nations of Eastern Europe into a treaty with the Soviet Union.

Example Question #1 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

What is the name of policy of openness and extension of individual freedoms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union during the 1980s? 

Possible Answers:

The Warsaw Pact

Comintern

Duma

Glasnost

Perestroika

Correct answer:

Glasnost

Explanation:

During the 1980s, the Soviet Union underwent a revolution of sorts that paved the way for the fall of communism just a few years later. This revolution is generally referred to as "glasnost" and "perestroika." "Perestroika" was the restructuring of the political system. "Glasnost" was the opening of freedoms of speech and the press in Russian society.

Example Question #3 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

In the Russian Revolution, the Tsarist monarchy was replaced by __________.

Possible Answers:

autocracy

fascism

oligarchy

communism

capitalism

Correct answer:

communism

Explanation:

The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 during World War I. The tsar at the time, Nicholas II, was overthrown, and his government was replaced with a communist government that would grow into the USSR. When the Russian Revolution took place, the population was decimated from warfare and famine, and the new communist government pulled Russia out of the First World War.

Example Question #71 : 1900 C.E. To Present

Which two groups comprised the Socialist movement in Russia at the time of Russian Revolution?

Possible Answers:

Leninists and Stalinists 

Leninists and Trotskyites

Muscovites and Siberians 

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

None of the other answer choices is correct.

Correct answer:

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

Explanation:

The Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were the two primary socialist political parties in 1917, the time of the revolution in Russia. The Mensheviks were lead by Alexander Kerenskii and the Bolsheviks were lead by Lenin. The Bolsheviks were the majority and differed from the Menshevik minority in their beliefs; Mensheviks favored a gradual change and opposed revolution, and the Bolsheviks desired absolute control for the Socialist Party and favored revolution as opposed to gradual change. The Bolsheviks and Lenin would emerge in control.

Example Question #591 : Sat Subject Test In World History

The Great Purge took place in which country in the twentieth century?

Possible Answers:

France

Vietnam 

The U.S.

The U.S.S.R.

The U.K.

Correct answer:

The U.S.S.R.

Explanation:

The Great Purge was a campaign initiated by Stalin in 1934 to remove all “undesirable” elements from the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. In practical terms, it involved the removal of numerous government officials from their positions, the execution of much of the Red Army’s leadership, repression of the peasantry, and the execution and imprisonment of intellectuals. The Purge was primarily caused by Stalin’s desire to consolidate his control over the Communist Party and to remove any factions who might remain loyal to his chief challenger, Leon Trotsky.

Example Question #1 : The Ussr

The policies of Glasnost and Perestroika were introduced by which Russian leader?

Possible Answers:

Nikita Khrushchev 

Vladimir Lenin 

Dmitry Medvedev  

Joseph Stalin

Mikhail Gorbachev

Correct answer:

Mikhail Gorbachev

Explanation:

When Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev rose to power in 1985 he set about reviving the stagnant Russian economy. He soon realized that the Soviet Union’s extensive economic problems could not be resolved without a complete restructuring of the political and social institutions of the U.S.S.R. To this end he adopted two famous policies called “glasnost” (openness) and “perestroika” (restructuring). “Perestroika” sought to replace Russia’s planned economy with something much more akin to a western economic system, whereas “glasnost” was designed to implement openness and accountability into the Soviet government. These two major reforms are usually credited with bringing about the end of communism and fracturing the Soviet Union. 

Example Question #1 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

Glasnost was primarily intended to __________.

Possible Answers:

Liberalize an increasingly orthodox and conservative Russian society

Promote the interests of Russia in the Balkan region

Provide greater transparency of the actions taken by the Soviet government 

Support the growth of industry and agriculture in the Ukraine

Liberate the serfs from economic servitude

Correct answer:

Provide greater transparency of the actions taken by the Soviet government 

Explanation:

“Glasnost” was a policy of openness implemented by Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev in the waning years of the Soviet Union. Its primary intention was to provide the public with greater access to information and ensure higher levels of accountability in the government.

Example Question #2 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

In which months of 1917 was Russia beset by revolution?

Possible Answers:

March and December

April and September

March and November 

April and October 

April and November 

Correct answer:

March and November 

Explanation:

The Russian Revolution of 1917 is the collective term given to the process whereby the Tsarist regime was overthrown and replaced by the Soviet Union. Due to differences at the time between the European and Russian calendars, the two revolutions are called either “the February and October Revolutions” or “the March and November Revolutions.” The March revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime and replaced it with a provisional government; however, the Socialists were still not in complete control, and in November, Lenin overthrew the provisional government and established the Soviet Union.

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