SAT II World History : Ancient Greece

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Ancient Greece

The Peleponnesian War was contested by

Possible Answers:

the Greek city states and the Roman Republic.

Athens and its allies against Sparta and its allies.

Athens and its allies against the Persian Empire.

the Greek city states against the Kingdom of Macedon.

Sparta and its allies against the Persian Empire.

Correct answer:

Athens and its allies against Sparta and its allies.

Explanation:

The Peleponessian War (431-404 BCE) completely transformed Greek politics, economics, and culture. The war pitted the democratic Athens and its similarly minded allies with authoritarian Sparta and its allies, which saw the entirety of ancient Greece divided along geographic and philosophical lines in a contested series of cil wars. Sparta's eventual victory in the conflict made Athens destitute and greatly weakened their allies as well, restructuring the power based of the entire Greek lands.

Example Question #1 : Ancient Greece

Pericles is best remembered as a(n) __________.

Possible Answers:

champion of Athenian democracy

military leader in Sparta

inventor and scientist in Athens

tyrant who ended democracy in ancient Greece

historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian War

Correct answer:

champion of Athenian democracy

Explanation:

Pericles is remebered as a champion of Athenian democracy in the fifth Century BCE. He led the Athenian democracy throughout much of its conflict with Sparta.

Example Question #1 : Ancient Greece

The Peloponnesian Wars were fought between __________.

Possible Answers:

Sparta and Rome

Athens and Egypt

Athens and Sparta

Greece and Persia

Greece and Rome

Correct answer:

Athens and Sparta

Explanation:

The Peloponnesian Wars were fought between Athens and Sparta in the fifth century BCE. The Greek city states had grown powerful and wealthy after defeating the invading Persians in the Persian Wars. Athens began to emerge as a hegemonic power in the region and worried Sparta with its expansionist tendencies. The two city-states went to war. The war ended in victory for the Sparta, destruction of Athens, and the disunity of the Greek city-states.

Example Question #1 : Ancient Greece

Phillip of Macedon was the father of __________.

Possible Answers:

Darius I

Alexander the Great

Xerxes

Pericles

Homer

Correct answer:

Alexander the Great

Explanation:

In the years after the Peloponnesian War, as the influence of the Greek city-states waned, the power of Macedon (to the north of Greece) rose spectacularly. Phillip of Macedon expanded Macedonian power greatly, and then his son Alexander the Great incorporated Greece into Macedonian control and proceeded to conquer much of the known world, reaching as far east as India.

Example Question #1 : Europe

What name is given to a self-governing city-state in Ancient Greek history?

Possible Answers:

parliament 

metropole 

duma 

Pericles 

polis 

Correct answer:

polis 

Explanation:

The Ancient Greeks are often credited by historians with developing the world’s first representative democracy - particularly in the city state of Athens, where philosophy and democracy most prominently flourished. The Ancient Greek city-state was called a polis. 

Example Question #2 : Ancient Greece

In Ancient Spartan society helots were __________

Possible Answers:

religious figures who interpreted the word of the Gods for men

ruling figures who served little purpose in peace time, but commanded the Spartan forces in battle

concubines owned by the aristocratic class

carriors who trained constantly together to perfect the cooperative fighting methods that made Sparta so successful 

captured people forced into slavery

Correct answer:

captured people forced into slavery

Explanation:

Spartan society, as you probably know, was famous for its extreme militarization and organization. The Spartan army was the most accomplished in Ancient Greece and was victorious in numerous conflicts. These conflicts led to an influx of captured prisoners who were enslaved and used to work the fields and provide for the agricultural growth of Spartan society. They were called Helots. 

Example Question #3 : Europe

Solon and Draco were political reformers in which Ancient Greek city-state?

Possible Answers:

Corinth

Thebes

Syracuse

Athens

Sparta

Correct answer:

Athens

Explanation:

Solon and Draco are two notable political reformers in Ancient Athenian society. Before Solon democracy in Athens was virtually non-existent (indeed Solon himself was essentially a tyrannical figure). Solon instituted reforms to provide for direct democracy for many members of Athenian society. He also forbade debt-slavery. Draco is famous for instituting a code of laws in Athenian society - these laws were considered harsh, but just. 

Example Question #1 : Ancient Greece

What name was given to the colleciton of city-states led by Athens originally against Persian invasion? 

Possible Answers:

The Peloponnesian League

The Attican League

The Helicarnassian League

The Athenian League

The Delian League

Correct answer:

The Delian League

Explanation:

In response to the continuous threat of Persian invasion in the fifth century B.C.E. Athens formed the extensive Delian League with dozens of islands and city-states dotted around the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor. The original purpose of the Delian League was to provide for a shared navy to protect against Persian invasion, but as the threat of Persian invasion waned Athens began to use the Delian League for its own purposes. This led to an outbreak of war with Sparta (and Sparta's Peloponnesian League) in 431 B.C.E. 

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