SAT II World History : North and South America

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #31 : North And South America

In the Vietnam War, the American military fought on the side of __________.

Possible Answers:

Cambodia and Burma against Vietnam

the South Vietnamese against the North Vietnamese

the North Vietnamese against the South Vietnamese

Vietnam against the combined forces of Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand

Vietnam against the forces of communist China

Correct answer:

the South Vietnamese against the North Vietnamese

Explanation:

In the Vietnam War, the Americans fought against the communist government of North Vietnam and on the side of the republican government of South Vietnam. The American goal in the war was to prevent the spread of communism to South Vietnam. Opposition to the Vietnam War was a major mobilizer for social change in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s.

Example Question #32 : North And South America

The National Security Act of 1947 created which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Only the CIA and the NSC

Department of Defense

National Security Council

All of these answers

Central Intelligence Agency

Correct answer:

All of these answers

Explanation:

The National Security Act of 1947 created the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, and the Department of Defense. The National Security Act of 1947 was a major change and growth in the powers of the Federal government to provide for the defense of the nation in the wake of World War Two. The creation of the Central Intelligence Agency can be seen as an important early moment in the budding Cold War.

Example Question #1 : Revolutions In South America

Peronismo in Argentina had a relationship to the economy best defined as

Possible Answers:

laissez-faire.

corporatist.

capitalist.

socialist.

communist.

Correct answer:

corporatist.

Explanation:

Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina three times, ruling from 1946-1955, and then again from October 1973 to his death in July 1974. Peron was a military leader who espoused a "third way" form of economics and government between capitalism and communism that was referred to as "Peronismo." Typically, this is called "corporatism," as Peron and his followers sought to have the government work with corporations and labor unions to create economic balance.

Example Question #34 : North And South America

At the time of the Great Depression, the Brazilian economy was overwhelmingly reliant on __________.

Possible Answers:

the growth and sale of tobacco

the mining and sale of silver

the growth and sale of coffee

the harvesting and sale of rubber

the growth and sale of cotton

Correct answer:

the growth and sale of coffee

Explanation:

In the early twentieth century, more than three quarters of the worlds coffee was grown in Brazil. The country was governed by a proto-republican oligarchy that was able to maintain power as a result of the high cost of and demand for coffee; however, during the Great Depression, the demand for coffee collapsed, causing the price to collapse and plunging Brazil into an economic crisis. This led to the overthrowing of the republican government, which was replaced by a military dictatorship.

Example Question #2 : Revolutions In South America

Which Argentinian military officer governed the country from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974?

Possible Answers:

Pedro II

Benito Juárez

Lázaro Cárdenas

Juan Perón

Simón Bolívar

Correct answer:

Juan Perón

Explanation:

Juan Perón is the most famous Argentinian president who served during the tumultuous years of revolution and military dictatorships that defined Argentinian politics in the middle of the twentieth century. He came to power shortly after the end of the Second World War before being overthrown and ostracized from the government by a military coup in 1955.

Example Question #36 : North And South America

The movement towards democracy in Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s occurred as a result of __________.

Possible Answers:

the cultural influence of the United States 

the growing global demand for oil and other raw resources

the economic influence of the United States

skyrocketing debt and economic stagnation

the declining global demand for oil and other raw resources

Correct answer:

skyrocketing debt and economic stagnation

Explanation:

During the military dictatorship regimes of the mid-twentieth century, most Latin American countries were almost entirely reliant on exporting their raw resources to the industrial nations of Europe, North America, and Japan; however, as the economies of many Latin American countries began to struggle in the 1970s, their governments reacted by taking massive loans out from the banks and governments of the developed world. By 1982, Latin American debt had spiraled out of control, and many governments declared themselves unable to pay off the debt. This led to a movement towards democracy as the people of the various Latin American nations lost faith in the ability of the military dictatorships to provide safe and effective government.

Example Question #3 : Revolutions In South America

Which of these is the biggest reason why military dictatorships emerged in Latin America in the 1930s?

Possible Answers:

Economic crisis

Natural disasters

Global conflict

The spread of Christianity

Weak republican leadership

Correct answer:

Economic crisis

Explanation:

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the nations of Latin America were generally either colonies or republics, with a few exceptions. When the economic crisis of the Great Depression hit in the 1930s, many states lost faith in their republican governments, and military dictatorships were able to seize power. This happened in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, and several other countries.

Example Question #4 : Revolutions In South America

Which of the following countries played the largest role in Latin American economic and political life in the twentieth century?

Possible Answers:

The United States

Portugal

Spain

China

The United Kingdom

Correct answer:

The United States

Explanation:

For several centuries, Latin America was a series of European colonies, mostly Spanish and Portuguese. In the nineteenth century, most of these achieved independence; however, that independence was to become profoundly illusory in the twentieth century as the United States began to exert overwhelming control over Latin American economic and political life. American investors took control of mines, plantations, and financial institutions throughout Latin America, and the American government took an active role in encouraging revolutions to further political interests.

Example Question #39 : North And South America

The Iran-Contra Affair happened during which Presidential administration?

Possible Answers:

Ronald Reagan.

George W. Bush.

Bill Clinton.

George H.W. Bush.

Jimmy Carter.

Correct answer:

Ronald Reagan.

Explanation:

The Iran-Contra Affair was a political and diplomatic scandal that occurred during the second term of Ronald Reagan’s presidency. It involved the sale of arms, illegal under an international embargo being enforced at the time, by the American government to the Iranian government. The money was then used to fund rebel soldiers in Nicaragua (the contras) which had also been prohibited by the United States Congress. Because the President’s administration effectively acted in secret and in knowing violation of two laws it was a significant scandal for Reagan to try to deal with.

Example Question #40 : North And South America

Dollar Diplomacy was the primary foreign policy of which President?

Possible Answers:

James Madison.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.

James Buchanan.

William Howard Taft.

James K. Polk.

Correct answer:

William Howard Taft.

Explanation:

Dollar Diplomacy was part of the early period of American imperialism, at the beginning of the Twentieth Century. It was most frequently used under President William Howard Taft. Dollar Diplomacy involved establishing businesses and lending money to investors in foreign countries (particularly Central America) and taking economic, political, and financial control over a country by wielding the power of big business and financial obligation.

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