SAT II US History : U.S. Economic History from 1899 to the Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

What President was slow to respond to the unfolding of the Great Depression?

Possible Answers:

Warren Harding

Herbert Hoover

Franklin Roosevelt

Calvin Coolidge

Correct answer:

Herbert Hoover

Explanation:

Herbert Hoover was President for the first three and a half years of the Depression. He was widely criticized for his slow reaction, then not reacting strongly enough as it became obvious that the nation was falling further and further into economic decline.

Example Question #12 : Cause And Effect In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Following the stock market crash in 1929 many banks would quickly run out of money. What caused them to run out of money?

Possible Answers:

Most people who had loans defaulted on them

The government closed many of them and took the money

They lost their money in the stock market

Account holders withdrew their money

Correct answer:

Account holders withdrew their money

Explanation:

In what became known as the run on banks, many people rushed to their banks to withdraw their money, only to find the bank had no money to give them. Banks do not keep anywhere near enough money to cover the value of all their accounts, so after the first wave of people the banks had no more money to hand out, and due to defaulting loans and the market crash, had no money coming in. This meant many banks went under and the account holders would not get back the money they had deposited.

Example Question #13 : Cause And Effect In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

What change to the industrial base in America by the 1920's helped cause the Great Depression?

Possible Answers:

Exporting of industry 

Rise of corporations

Decaying industrial base

Greater regulation

Correct answer:

Decaying industrial base

Explanation:

Most of the industrial base in America had, at this point, been built at least 30 to 40 years earlier. This meant that most of the technology in the industrial space was very old and outdated. This coupled with the toll the years and constant ware that the equipment and the buildings themselves had been through, and it helped to cause a massive slowdown in industrial output as the system ground down.

Example Question #12 : U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Economists concur generally that the __________ was one of the major causes of the Great Depression, contributing greatly to its severity and length.

Possible Answers:

income tax

the Smoot-Hawley Tariff

the Tariff of Abominations

the Whiskey Tax

Correct answer:

the Smoot-Hawley Tariff

Explanation:

Although the Smoot-Hawley Tariff was well-intentioned, it was a major contributing factor to the Great Depression. Without going into needlessly complicated detail, foreign trade is a major component of basically every developed economy—the U.S. in 1930 was no exception. The Tariff (because it artificially increased the prices of many imported goods) caused a major slump in foreign trade, leading (in part) to the Great Depression.

Example Question #1 : Facts And Details In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

The American inventor, Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931), was known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park" for his 1,093 US Patents.  Which of the following did Edison NOT invent?

Possible Answers:

The internal combustion engine

Mimeograph

Motion Picture Camera

A long-lasting electric light bulb

Phonograph

Correct answer:

The internal combustion engine

Explanation:

Belgian engineer, Étienne Lenoir, is generally credited with having invented the first commercially viable internal combustion engine.

Example Question #13 : U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Convicted of a double-homocide during an armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts. in 1920,  these two anarchist Italian immigrants were executed.  In 1977, they had their reputations post-humously reformed by Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis on the grounds that their trial was marred by anti-immigrant sentiment and prejudice toward the Italians' anarchism.  Who were these anarchists?

Possible Answers:

Bookchin and Meltzer

Leopold and Loeb

Sacco and Vanzetti

Galleani and Buda

Cafiero and Malatesta

Correct answer:

Sacco and Vanzetti

Explanation:

Ferdinando Nicola Sacco (b. April 22, 1891) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (b. June 11, 1888) were convicted of murder and executed on August 23, 1927.

Example Question #42 : Sat Subject Test In United States History

Which of the following was NOT a key component of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal?

Possible Answers:
Insuring bank accounts against failures and panics.
Sought protection for labor unions
Creating employment opportunities through programs like the Works Progress Administration
Increasing the income tax rate
Lowering taxes to increase business investment.
Correct answer: Lowering taxes to increase business investment.
Explanation:

The New Deal was a widespread series of government programs undertaken by Roosevelt when he became President to boost the American economy during the depths of the Great Recession.  In general, the programs sought to expand government’s role in the economy, making the answer about lowering taxes the only answer choice that does not fit in as a New Deal program.

Example Question #4 : Facts And Details In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

In March of 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made his first radio broadcast from the White House, later known as "fireside chats," to                .

Possible Answers:

ask the public to refrain from turning on the lights in case of an air raid.

explain the New Deal programs to the public.

explain his reasoning for closing U.S. Banks for a few days.

deliver the State of the Union.

gain moral support of the country for his new initiatives.

Correct answer:

explain his reasoning for closing U.S. Banks for a few days.

Explanation:

Although many of the New Deal actions were later pushed through the fireside chats for public appeal, the original intent of the broadcast was to disseminate the panic related to the closing of the banks as the unemployment skyrocketed, and the markets crashed dramatically.  This was later dubbed the Emergency Banking act.

Example Question #14 : U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

The most destructive stock market crash in U.S. history, known as the Stock Market Crash of 1929, is also known by what other name?

Possible Answers:

The Day of Doom

Bloody Sunday

Black Friday

Grim Tuesday

Black Tuesday

Correct answer:

Black Tuesday

Explanation:

The Stock Market Crash of 1929, which began the 10-year Great Depression, is also known as Black Tuesday, as it happened on a Tuesday.

Example Question #6 : Facts And Details In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Federal income tax on individuals is                .

Possible Answers:

Progressive

Fixed

Proportional and regressive

Proportional and progressive

Proportional

Correct answer:

Progressive

Explanation:

The Federal income tax is progressive for both individuals and corporations. This, essentially, means that the higher your personal income the greater percentage of that income is subject to taxation. The history of personal income tax in the United States is, perhaps, surprisingly recent. The first income tax was levied on wealthy individuals during the Civil War, but was repealed following the war’s end. Not until 1895 did the Federal government institute its first peacetime income tax. Shortly thereafter Congress passed the Sixteenth Amendment that enabled the government to levy taxes on all personal income. From that moment until now there has been a gradual trend of taxation increases and increases on the proportion of income that the wealthy are required to pay. This reflects the trends of much greater government spending and much greater social awareness in the twentieth and twenty-first Centuries.

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