SAT II US History : Facts and Details in U.S. Political History from 1790 to 1898

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #121 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Which of the following factions of the Republican Party heavily favored the spoils system?

Possible Answers:

Stalwarts

None of these

Half-Breeds

Mugwumps

Full-bred

Correct answer:

Stalwarts

Explanation:

The “Stalwarts” led by Senator Conkling heavily favored the spoils system, and thus opposed civil-service reform. Remember: the spoils system was a political incarnation of “to the victor goes the spoils”; in other words, the party member who won the election was supposed to fill the vacant bureaucracy seats with his friends and supporters who helped him get elected. Obviously, the Stalwarts weren’t too fond of civil service reform—which sought to do away with, or at least decrease, the spoils. 

Example Question #122 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Which of the following factions of the Republican Party were in favor of civil-service reform and a merit system?

Possible Answers:

Half-Breeds

Full-bred

Mugwumps

Chestertons

Stalwarts

Correct answer:

Half-Breeds

Explanation:

The “Half-Breeds” were a faction of the Republican Party that were in direct opposition to the Stalwarts, but still voted Republican. The Half-Breeds were led by Senator James G. Blaine. The name “half-breed” was supposedly signified the Stalwarts’ contempt of the Half-Breeds—that the Stalwarts viewed the Half-Breeds as only half-Republican.

Example Question #123 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Which of the following factions of the Republican Party voted for Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, for President?

Possible Answers:

Half-Breeds

Mugwumps

Grantians

Full-bred

Stalwarts

Correct answer:

Mugwumps

Explanation:

Interestingly, the Mugwumps were a faction of the Republican Party that voted Democrat (just for Cleveland). The reason being that the Mugwumps were firm believers in civil-service reform, and just didn’t quite think that Blane, the Half-Breed candidate, was up to the challenge.

Example Question #124 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

In the lead up to the US Civil War, what was the first state to secede from the Union?

Possible Answers:

Georgia

Mississippi

North Carolina

South Carolina

Virginia

Correct answer:

South Carolina

Explanation:

In reaction to Abraham Lincoln's election as president, South Carolina was the first state to secede, doing so in December 1860. Georgia and Mississippi seceded in January 1861. Virginia and North Carolina did not secede until after the Battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861.

Example Question #125 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Under the Missouri Compromise, which state entered the Union as a free state?

Possible Answers:

None of these

Nebraska

Kansas

Missouri

California

Correct answer:

None of these

Explanation:

As a result of the Missouri Compromise, Maine entered the Union as a free state, but is not listed as any of the choices. Missouri entered the Union as a slave state. California, Kansas, and Nebraska were not a part of the compromise, and they all entered the Union as free states decades after the compromise.

Example Question #126 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Under the Compromise of 1850, which state entered the Union as a free state?

Possible Answers:

Kansas

Nebraska

None of these

Missouri

California

Correct answer:

California

Explanation:

California entered the Union as a free state as one of the provisions of the compromise. Missouri had already gained statehood as a slave state decades earlier. Nebraska and Kansas were not part of the compromise, gaining statehood years later.

Example Question #127 : U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Each of the following slave states seceded from the Union between December, 1860 and May, 1861 except ________________.

Possible Answers:

Maryland

Texas

Arkansas

Virginia

South Carolina

Correct answer:

Maryland

Explanation:

Although most slave states seceded from the Union in 1860-1861 to form the Confederate States, a few Border States where slavery was legal remained loyal to the United States. The loyal Border States included Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. During the war, the pro-Union areas of western Virginia seceded from Virginia to form the new state of West Virginia. Although the Border States officially remained loyal to the United States, citizens from every Border State fought on both sides of the American Civil War.

Example Question #122 : U.S. Political History

Which of the following abolished slavery in the United States and its territories?

Possible Answers:

The Northwest Ordinance

The Confiscation Acts

The Missouri Compromise

The Emancipation Proclamation

The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution

Correct answer:

The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution

Explanation:

Slavery was not completely abolished in the United States until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. The other answers restricted slavery to some extent, but did not completely abolish it. The 1887 Northwest Ordinance prohibited slavery in territories north of the Ohio River that were annexed by the United States from Great Britain after the Revolutionary War. The 1820 Missouri Compromise prohibited slavery in the land purchased by the United States from France in 1803, except for the state of Missouri. The Civil War-era Confiscation Acts allowed the Union army to confiscate and free slaves whose masters had rebelled against the United States. The Emancipation Proclamation was put forth by President Lincoln in 1862. Lincoln used his war powers to free every slave in the Confederacy if those states did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863. However, the Proclamation did not free any slaves in loyal Border States like Kentucky, or in territories of the Confederacy that had already been conquered by the Union Army in 1862.

Example Question #101 : Facts And Details In U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

Which of following pre-Civil War political parties was founded as an anti-slavery party?

Possible Answers:

The American Party

The Whig Party

The Republican Party

The Federalist Party

The Democratic Party

Correct answer:

The Republican Party

Explanation:

Founded in 1854, the Republican Party opposed the expansion of slavery to new territories such as Kansas. The other parties contained members who held anti-slavery views, but they also included members who either owned slaves or supported slavery. 

Example Question #102 : Facts And Details In U.S. Political History From 1790 To 1898

All of the following were consequences of the Battle of Antietam except _________________.

Possible Answers:

the Union victory helped to prevent the recognition of the Confederate States of America by Great Britain and France

General George McClellan was replaced as head of the Army of the Potomac by President Lincoln

the Union victory gave President Lincoln the political opening to put forth the Emancipation Proclamation

the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Army of the Potomac

the Confederate invasion of Maryland was repulsed.

Correct answer:

the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Army of the Potomac

Explanation:

Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was defeated in the Battle of Antietam; however, it was able to escape back into Virginia after the battle. It did not surrender to the Union Army until April 1865 during the Appomattox Campaign.   

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