SAT II Biology M : Cell Structures

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II Biology M

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Nucleus And Nucleolus

A student identifies a cell as prokaryotic. Which of the following could NOT be a characteristic of the cell?

Possible Answers:

The ability to carry out photosynthesis

Ribosomes

A true nucleus

DNA

A cell wall

Correct answer:

A true nucleus

Explanation:

A defining characteristic of prokaryotes is the lack of a true nucleus. Prokaryotic cells do contain ribosomes, DNA, and cell walls, and some but not all prokaryotes are capable of photosynthesis.

Example Question #1 : Cell Structures

Which of the following is true of the endoplasmic reticulum? 

Possible Answers:

Both the smooth and rough ER are directly involved in protein synthesis. 

The smooth ER contains ribosomes which account for the smooth surface. 

The endoplasmic reticulum is made up of membrane-enclosed spaces used for the trafficking of materials. 

The rough ER is involved in metabolism and lipid synthesis. 

The endoplasmic reticulum functions in the transport of materials destined to be endocytosed into the cell. 

Correct answer:

The endoplasmic reticulum is made up of membrane-enclosed spaces used for the trafficking of materials. 

Explanation:

The endoplasmic reticulum is made up of membrane-enclosed spaces used for the trafficking of materials that will be secreted from the cell. Therefore it is involved in exocytosis, not endocytosis. The smooth ER is involved in metabolism and lipid synthesis. The rough ER contains ribosomes accounting for its rough appearance and allowing it to be involved in protein synthesis. 

Example Question #1 : Sat Subject Test In Biology

Which of the following statements about the Golgi apparatus are FALSE?

Possible Answers:

The Golgi apparatus sends vesicles to the cell surface to be exocytosed.

The Golgi apparatus receives vesicles from the smooth ER.

The Golgi apparatus modifies contents of vesicles.

The Golgi apparatus repackages contents into vesicles.

The Golgi apparatus produces some lipids.

Correct answer:

The Golgi apparatus produces some lipids.

Explanation:

The Golgi aparatus does not synthesize lipids. Lipids are synthesized in the smooth ER.

Example Question #1 : Cell Biology

Which of the following accurately describes the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Possible Answers:

Neither the rough endoplasmic reticulum nor the smooth endoplasmic reticulum have any ribosomes bound to their surfaces.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has many ribosomes bound to its surface, but the rough endoplasmic reticulum does not.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum both have many ribosomes bound to their surfaces.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum has many ribosomes bound to its surface, but the smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not.

Correct answer:

The rough endoplasmic reticulum has many ribosomes bound to its surface, but the smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not.

Explanation:

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is described as "rough" because it is covered in ribosomes, which look like tiny beads along its surface. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum doesn't have these ribosomes all over its surface, so it appears flat and is described as "smooth" for this reason. The ribosomes function to make proteins.

Example Question #1 : Cell Structures

The cell is the most basic unit of life in all known organisms. Integral to its function is its ability to maintain intracellular and extracellular boundaries. Maintaining these boundaries is the function of membranes.

Which of the following choices include cells that have both a cell wall and a membrane?

I. Bacterial cells
II. Fungal cells
III. Animal cells

Possible Answers:

I, II, and III

II and III

I and III

I only

I and II

Correct answer:

I and II

Explanation:

Plants, bacteria, and fungi have both a membrane as well as a cell wall. On the other hand, animal cells have only a membrane.

Example Question #1 : Cell Membrane And Cell Wall

The cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi are of varying composition. Plant cells are composed of __________.

Possible Answers:

peptidoglycan

glycogen

carboxypeptidase

chitin

cellulose

Correct answer:

cellulose

Explanation:

Plant cell walls are made of cellulose, a polysaccharide.

Example Question #1 : Cell Structures

The cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi are of varying composition. Fungi cells are composed of __________.

Possible Answers:

peptidoglycan

carboxypeptidase

chitin

cellulose

glycogen

Correct answer:

chitin

Explanation:

Fungal cells have cell walls composed of chitin, a polysaccharide similar in structure to cellulose.

Example Question #1 : Cell Membrane And Cell Wall

The cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi are of varying composition. Bacterial cells are composed of __________.

Possible Answers:

carboxypeptidase

glycogen

peptidoglycan

chitin

cellulose

Correct answer:

peptidoglycan

Explanation:

Bacterial cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan, a protein and sugar moiety. 

Example Question #1 : Cell Structures

____________ are hollow tubes made up of polymerized tubulin that provide support throughout the cell. 

Possible Answers:

Flagella

Actin

Fibrae 

Cilia

Microtubules

Correct answer:

Microtubules

Explanation:

Microtubules are hollow tubes made up of polymerized tubulin that provide support throughout the cell. 

Example Question #1 : Cell Biology

Which of the following characteristics are true of all enzymes? 

Possible Answers:

Enzymes do not alter the equilibrium constant.

Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH.

Three of the answer choices are correct.

Enzymes are not used up in the reaction.

None of the answer choices are correct.

Correct answer:

Three of the answer choices are correct.

Explanation:

Enzymes do not alter the equilibrium constant because enzymes are not consumed in the reaction.

Hint: Write out the equation for the equilibrium constant and notice that there is no variable for enzymes. 

Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH, as high temperatures and very low pH can cause denaturation of an enzyme. Enzymes are only optimal at certain pH and temperature ranges.

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