SAT II Biology E : Cell Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II Biology E

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Example Questions

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Example Question #21 : Sat Subject Test In Biology

During the eukaryotic cell cycle, what is the function of the G2 checkpoint?

Possible Answers:

Initiates the cell division process if conditions are favorable.

Ensures that each daughter cell has received the correct number of chromatids after cell division.

Ensures that the cell has matured to a sufficient state before beginning synthesis.

Prevents sister chromatids from separating before each chromatid is secured to a spindle microtubule.

Prevents cells from undergoing mitosis until all chromosomes have completely replicated and any DNA damage has been repaired.

Correct answer:

Prevents cells from undergoing mitosis until all chromosomes have completely replicated and any DNA damage has been repaired.

Explanation:

The G2 checkpoint of cell division prevents the cell from entering the mitotic or dividing phase until all chromosomes have accurately been replicated. Other answers: "Prevents sister chromatids from separating before each chromatid is secured to a spindle microtubule" refers to the spindle or M checkpoint. "Initiates the cell division process if conditions are favorable" and "Ensures that the cell has matured to a sufficient state before beginning synthesis" refer to functions of the restrictive or G1 checkpoint. "Ensures that each daughter cell has received the correct number of chromatids after cell division" is incorrect since there is no checkpoint in cell division to error check the results of mitosis.

Example Question #11 : Cell Functions

Which three phases are included in Interphase?

Possible Answers:

G0, S, and G1

M, G0, S

G1, S, and G2

M, S, and G

G0, G1, and G2 

Correct answer:

G1, S, and G2

Explanation:

During interphase, you have G1, or gap 1, in which the cell grows. Then you have S phase, in which the cell synthesizes its DNA. Finally, you have G2, or gap 2, in which the cell continues to grow again.

Example Question #1 : Other Cell Functions

Which of the following types of transport require ATP?

Possible Answers:

Sodium ions moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a voltage-gated sodium channel

Glucose moving into the cell, down its concentration gradient, through a channel

The Na+/Kpump releasing 3 sodium ions outside of the cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell

Water moving down its concentration gradient through an aquaporin

Water moving from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration

Correct answer:

The Na+/Kpump releasing 3 sodium ions outside of the cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell

Explanation:

The Na+/K+ pump is active transport and therefore requires ATP. Since the pump is moving ions against its concentration gradient, it requires ATP to change the conformation of the pump to release the ions. All of the other forms of transport are either diffusion (moving down its concentration gradient) or facilitated diffusion (moving down its concentration gradient with the help of a channel or carrier). 

Good tip: Pumps are used for active transport while carrier proteins or channels are used for facilitated diffusion which is a type of passive transport.

Example Question #12 : Cell Functions

All of the following are a part of the Cell Theory EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

cells arise from nonliving substances

the cell is the basic building block of life

all living things are made up of cells

the chemical reactions necessary for life take place in the cell

cells carry genetic information

Correct answer:

cells arise from nonliving substances

Explanation:

Cells do not arise from nonliving substances, though scientists used to believe they did. Through several experiments by many different scientists, it became clear that indeed all cells arise from preexisting cells.

Example Question #1 : Cellular Respiration

All of following are true of cellular respiration EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

cellular respiration yields 36–38 ATP

cellular respiration is an anaerobic process

oxygen is the final electron acceptor

cellular respiration is the most efficient way to harvest energy from glucose

cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondrion

Correct answer:

cellular respiration is an anaerobic process

Explanation:

Cellular respiration is NOT an anaerobic process. It is exactly the opposite! Cellular respiration uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor making it an aerobic process. Anaerobic process do not use oxygen. 

Example Question #1 : Cellular Respiration

For each molecule of glucose, how many ATP are produced by the Citric Acid Cycle? 

Possible Answers:

4 ATP

6 ATP

1 ATP

3 ATP

2 ATP

Correct answer:

2 ATP

Explanation:

Each molecule of glucose produces 2 pyruvate molecules. Each of these pyruvate molecules go through the citric acid cycle and produce 1 ATP each, resulting in 2 ATP total.

Example Question #1 : Cellular Respiration

How many ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule in anaerobic respiration?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Anaerobic respiration takes place when oxygen is low, such as when lactic acid fermentation takes place in human muscle tissue. This can be painful and cause some of the cramps experienced during intense exercise. Anaerobic respiration is much less efficient at producing ATP than aerobic respiration; it only produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule vs. 36 net ATP in aerobic respiration.

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