NCLEX-RN : Drug Identification

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX-RN

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Example Questions

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Example Question #181 : Pharmacology

A client being treated for type II diabetes has recently been prescribed an oral hyperglycemic medication and has inquired how the medications will keep his blood sugar levels under control. The nurse informs the patient the medication prescribed will reduce glucose production by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity but will not increase insulin production.

Based on this description, which diabetic medication has this client been prescribed?

Possible Answers:

Metformin

Sitagliptin

Glyburide

Glipizide

Exenatide

Correct answer:

Metformin

Explanation:

The only medication mentioned that does not actually stimulate insulin production is Metformin. This medication is a Biguanide, it's mechanism of action includes decreasing hepatic glucose production, and increases insulin sensitivity.

Example Question #181 : Pharmacology

A 26 year old pregnant client presents to labor and delivery in premature labor, the doctor has ordered a tocolytic medication to help in stopping the contractions.

Which of the following medications is effective in managing premature labor contractions?

Possible Answers:

Pitocin

Terbutaline sulfate

Calcium gluconate

Naprosyn

Misoprostol

Correct answer:

Terbutaline sulfate

Explanation:

Terbutaline sulfate is a tocolytic agent, as well as a bronchodilator effective in stopping premature labor contractions. Both Pitocin and Misoprostol are used to induce labor, calcium gluconate in labor is used to reverse magnesium sulfate another tocolytic. Naprosyn is an NSAID. 

Example Question #181 : Pharmacology

You are the nurse at a psychiatry clinic taking care of a 47-year old male who complains of three months of depressed mood and fatigue. His physician starts him on venlafaxine. Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of venlafaxine?

Possible Answers:

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Beta-adrenergic blocker

GABA agonist

Correct answer:

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

Explanation:

The correct answer is "Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)." This is correct because venlafaxine functions by blocking the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine, and thus is classified as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Venlafaxine is used to treat a number of conditions including depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and social phobia, among others. In addition to its anti-depressant properties, it is also useful in that it can provide the benefit of increased energy in some patients due to the norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (effectively increasing the effect of norepinephrine). 

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition (SSRI) is incorrect because venlafaxine is an SNRI, not an SSRI. An example of an SSRI is fluoxetine.

Monoamine oxidase inhibition (MAOI) is incorrect because venlafaxine is an SNRI, not an MAOI. An example of an MAOI is phenelzine. 

An example of a GABA agonist is phenobarbital, a barbiturate. 

An example of a beta-adrenergic blocker is propranolol.

Example Question #184 : Pharmacology

You are the nurse taking care of a 24-year old female with major depressive disorder. She is started on phenelzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). To avoid serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crisis, you should warn her to avoid which of the following foods?

Possible Answers:

Beets

Grapefruit juce

Aged cheeses

Carrots

Green, leafy vegetables

Correct answer:

Aged cheeses

Explanation:

The correct answer is "aged cheeses." This is the correct answer because MAOI's, when combined with food or drink products containing the metabolite, tyramine, have the potential to cause serious adverse effects including hypertensive crisis. Tyramine is found most commonly in aged cheeses and cured meats. Thus, since this patient is taking an MAOI, she should be advised to avoid aged cheeses.

Carrots, beets, grapefruit juice, and green, leafy vegetables do not need to be avoided in patients taking MAOI's. 

Example Question #185 : Pharmacology

You are the nurse taking care of a patient with schizophrenia. You administer the patient's medications and note that he is receiving haloperidol. Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of haloperidol?

Possible Answers:

Increased efficiency of GABA receptor binding

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist

Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Correct answer:

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist

Explanation:

The correct answer is "Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist." 

This is the correct answer, as haloperidol is a first-generation antipsychotic, also known as a typical antipsychotic medication, and functions by selectively antagonizing dopaminergic D2 receptors. Haloperidol is used to treat a number of conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (manic phase), acute psychosis, tics from Tourette syndrome, and delirium, among others. 

Increased efficiency of GABA receptor binding describes the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines, not haloperidol.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition does not describe the mechanism of action of haloperidol. This describes medications like fluoxetine and escitalopram.

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibition does not describe the mechanism of action of haloperidol. This describes medications like venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine.

Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibition does not describe the mechanism of action of haloperidol. This describes medications like buproprion and methylphenidate.

Example Question #191 : Nclex

You are the nurse in a primary care clinic taking care of a patient with spastic bladder. Her physician prescribes oxybutynin for symptom relief. Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of oxybutynin?

Possible Answers:

Beta-adrenergic blockade

Antagonism of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

Calcium-channel blockade

Direct thrombin inhibition

Alpha-adrenergic blockade

Correct answer:

Antagonism of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

Explanation:

The correct answer is "Antagonism of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors."

This is the correct answer because it accurately describes the way in which oxybutynin exhibits its anticholinergic properties, which help to relieve urinary frequency/urgency and bladder spasm. In patients with spastic bladder, oxybutynin exhibits its anticholinergic effects most significantly on the smooth muscle of the bladder detrusor muscle, which helps to treat the patients' symptoms associated with spasm of the muscle, which often manifests as urinary frequency or urgency, with or without urinary incontinence. 

Calcium-channel blockade does not describe the mechanism of action of oxybutynin. Verapamil and amlodipine are examples of calcium-channel blockers.

Beta-adrenergic blockade does not describe the mechanism of action of oxybutynin. Propranolol and esmolol are examples of beta-adrenergic blockers.

Alpha-adrenergic blockade does not describe the mechanism of action of oxybutynin. Tamsulosin and doxazosin are examples of alpha-adrenergic blockers.

Direct thrombin inhibition does not describe the mechanism of action of oxybutynin. Argatroban and lepirudin are examples of direct thrombin inhibitors.

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