NCLEX-RN : Drug Identification

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX-RN

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Example Questions

Example Question #91 : Drug Identification

Foscarent is toxic to which of the following organs?

Possible Answers:

Kidneys

Liver

Heart

Bladder

Correct answer:

Kidneys

Explanation:

Foscarent can cause damage to the kidneys. To reduce the damaging effect, the patient may be put on intravenous fluids.

Example Question #1 : Antiviral Pharmacology

What is acyclovir's mechanism of action?

Possible Answers:

Reverse transcriptase blocker

Guanosine analog

M2 channel inhibitor

Neuraminidase inhibitor

Correct answer:

Guanosine analog

Explanation:

Acyclovir is a guanosine analog, which works by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. This slows down the rate at which viruses can replicate. Acyclovir is used primarily in the treatment of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, chickenpox, and shingles.

Example Question #93 : Drug Identification

Allopurinol is used for what condition?

Possible Answers:

Gout

Type II diabetes

Hypertension

Kidney stones

Correct answer:

Gout

Explanation:

Allopurinol is a purine analog and xanthine oxidase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic gout. 

Example Question #91 : Drug Identification

Which of the following drugs is used in the treatment of osteoporosis?

Possible Answers:

Budesonide/formoterol 

Infliximab

Sitagliptin

Alendronic acid

Correct answer:

Alendronic acid

Explanation:

Alendronic acid (trade name Fosamax) is a bisphosphonate used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce bone loss by encouraging apoptosis in osteoclasts.

Infliximab is a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blocker used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and several other autoimmune conditions. Sitagliptin (trade name Januvia) is a diabetes medication. Budesonide/formoterol (trade name Symbicort) is a combination long acting beta agonist and corticosteroid used in the treatment of asthma.

Example Question #171 : Pharmacology

When Allopurinol is prescribed to a client, it is best for the nurse to include the following instructions:

Possible Answers:

That the effect of the medication will occur immediately

To take the medication on an empty stomach

To drink 3000 mL of fluid a day

That if swelling of the lips occurs, this is a normal expected response

Correct answer:

To drink 3000 mL of fluid a day

Explanation:

The nurse should instruct a patient on Allopurinol to drink 3000 mL of fluid a day to reduce the risk of kidney stone formation.

Example Question #92 : Drug Identification

The client prescribed cholestyramine has been given instructions for taking the medication. The nurse would recognize a need for further instructions if the client said:

Possible Answers:

This medication should only be taken with water

A high fiber diet is important while taking this medication

This medication will help lower my cholesterol

I will store the medication at room temperature

Correct answer:

This medication should only be taken with water

Explanation:

Cholestyramine should be taken with meals and water. The dosage should be administered once or twice daily, with a maximum of six times daily. Cholestyramine binds bile in the gastrointestinal tract to prevent its reabsorption.

Example Question #92 : Drug Identification

Which of the following is a potential side effect of prednisone?

Possible Answers:

Weight gain

Adrenal suppression

All of these

Hyperglycemia and diabetes

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are many potential side effects of prednisone, including all those listed in the answer choices, headache, fatigue, acne, seizures, upset stomach, changes in mood, difficulty breathing, dry cough, vomiting, depression, heartburn, muscle weakness, irregular heart beat, tremors, inability to properly thermoregulate, and many others. 

Example Question #98 : Drug Identification

The nurse anticipates administration of milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide). Which of the following patient conditions may affect the nurse’s decision to administer magnesium hydroxide?

Possible Answers:

Constipation

Indigestion

Stress ulcer

Peptic ulcer

Reflex esophagitis

Correct answer:

Constipation

Explanation:

The nurse must consider potential side effects of medications before administering them. Constipation, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, and acid rebound are potential side effects of magnesium hydroxide. A dose of magnesium hydroxide may potentially exacerbate the patient’s current condition if he is constipated. As an antacid, magnesium hydroxide is indicated for peptic ulcers, stress ulcers, indigestion, and reflex esophagitis.

Example Question #181 : Pharmacology

The psychiatric nurse cares for a patient with major depressive disorder admitted after a suicide attempt. The primary care provider has prescribed fluoxetine, which the patient has never taken before. Which of the following statements is important for the nurse to say to the patient?

Possible Answers:

“You could begin to feel more anxious.”

“You may experience changes in your bowel movements such as diarrhea or constipation.”

“This medication takes at least 4 weeks to work.”

“You may experience changes in appetite and weight.”

“You should take this medication in the morning because it can cause insomnia.”

Correct answer:

“This medication takes at least 4 weeks to work.”

Explanation:

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed to patients diagnosed with depression. It may cause changes in appetite and weight, increase anxiety and insomnia, or cause bradycardia or palpitations. It is most important for the nurse to educate the patient that the therapeutic effect of fluoxetine may take up to 4 weeks, as the patient has a previous suicide attempt, and may experience suicide ideation before the effect occurs.

Example Question #100 : Drug Identification

The nurse prepares to administer medications on the psychiatric unit. The patient is prescribed phenelzine sulfate for depression. Which of the following is the nurse’s priority education when administering this medication?

Possible Answers:

Effect of medication takes 3-4 weeks to work

Avoid tricyclic medications until 3 weeks after stopping

Potentiates alcohol and other medications

Avoid foods with tyramine

Wear sunblock

Correct answer:

Avoid foods with tyramine

Explanation:

Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that treats depression. Patients who take MAOIs should avoid foods with tyramine due to an increased risk for hypertensive crisis. Tyramine-rich foods include those that are fermented, heavily marinated, pickled, smoked, or heavily marinated, also, chocolate and alcoholic beverages have significant amounts of tyramine. In addition to education about diet modification, nurses must educate patients of the signs of hypertensive crisis, which are headache, sweating, palpitations, stiff neck, and intracranial hemorrhage. All of the other listed patient educations are essential, but the priority is to avoid tyramine due to the risk for hypertensive crisis, which is life-threatening.

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