NCLEX : Other Biology Concepts

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #171 : General Biology

Which of the following cranial nerves is not involved in the sensation of taste?

Possible Answers:

The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)

The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X)

The glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX)

The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)

Correct answer:

The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)

Explanation:

The sensation of taste is carried to the brainstem by three cranial nerves: the facial nerve (CN VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), and the vagus nerve (CN X). The facial and glossopharyngeal nerves both communicate sensation from the tongue, while the vagus nerve transmits sensory information from the epiglottis. The trigeminal nerve (CN V) is not directly involved in the sensation of taste, though there is evidence that it is involved in the senses of "heat" and "coolness" experienced while eating spicy or minty foods.

Example Question #11 : Other Biology Concepts

In addition to the tongue, epiglottis, and pharynx, taste receptors are located in which of the following organs?

Possible Answers:

The lung

The pancreas

All of these are correct

The testicle

Correct answer:

All of these are correct

Explanation:

In addition to the taste receptors in the mouth and pharynx, taste receptors are located in many other areas of the body. These including the lung (which has taste receptors for bitter flavors, possibly as a mechanism to protect against airborne toxins), the pancreas, the small intestine, the stomach, the brain, and the testis. While the function of taste receptors in the testes is not well known, some research indicates that testicular taste receptors may play an important role in male fertility.  

Example Question #481 : Nclex

Which of the following tastes is not associated with a G protein-coupled receptor?

Possible Answers:

Umami

Sweet 

Salty

Bitter

Correct answer:

Salty

Explanation:

Sweet, umami, and bitter taste are all correlated with receptors for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, also known as G proteins. Taste bud receptors that transmit information about saltiness are triggered by sodium ion channels in the cell wall. 

Example Question #484 : Nclex

Which of the following is not a form of lingual papillae?

Possible Answers:

Stratified

Foliate 

Circumvallate

Fungiform

Correct answer:

Stratified

Explanation:

The four types of lingual papillae are fungiform (mushroom-shaped), filiform ("thread-like"), circumvallate, and foliate.

Filiform papillae are the most numerous, covering the majority of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Fungiform papillae are scattered along the surface of the tongue, but are more concentrated on the tip and sides of the tongue. Foliate papillae are located on the sides and back of the tongue, and circumvallate papillae are the large, round papillae visible in a row on the posterior aspect of the tongue, just anterior to the foramen cecum and sulcus terminalis.  

Example Question #481 : Nclex

Which of the following triggers "sour" taste receptors in taste buds?

Possible Answers:

Hydrogen ions

Glutamate

Gustducin

Sodium ions

Correct answer:

Hydrogen ions

Explanation:

Sour flavor taste bud receptors are triggered in the presence of hydrogen ions (thus acidic foods often have a sour taste). Sodium triggers receptors for salty flavor, while glutamate and gustducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding protein, or G protein), are associated with umami, sweet, and bitter flavors.

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