NCLEX : Viruses and Other Microorganisms

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #242 : Nclex

90% of cases of condylomata acuminata (genital warts) are caused by what two strains of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Possible Answers:

51 and 52

6 and 11

30 and 54

42 and 43

Correct answer:

6 and 11

Explanation:

While all of the strains of HPV may cause condylomata acuminata, 90% of all cases of genital warts are caused by just two strains: 6 and 11. 

Example Question #21 : Identifying Viruses

All of the following are forms of herpes virus except __________.

Possible Answers:

Herpes simplex

Rotavirus

Varicella-zoster

Epstein-Barr virus 

Correct answer:

Rotavirus

Explanation:

There are more than 130 types of herpes viruses. Of those, 8 are known to infect humans. Some of the more common examples are herpes simplex 1 and 2, varicella / zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Less common viruses include human herpes virus 6, human herpes virus 7, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Rotavirus is not a herpes virus; rather, it is a double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family. 

Example Question #22 : Identifying Viruses

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increased risk of which of the following cancers?

Possible Answers:

Anal cancer

Vulvar cancer

Oropharyngeal cancer

All of these are correct

Correct answer:

All of these are correct

Explanation:

Human papillomavirus has been associated with several forms of cancer, including cancers of the cervix, vulva, anus, and oropharynx. It is also associated with penile and vaginal dysplasias. 

Example Question #52 : Microbiology

Which of the following is the microbe most frequently associated with the common cold?

Possible Answers:

Influenza

Adenovirus

Human coronavirus

Rhinovirus

Correct answer:

Rhinovirus

Explanation:

Rhinovirus, a type of picornavirus, is implicated in up to 50-80% of cases of the common cold. Other less common causes include human coronavirus (15% of cases), influenza (10%), and adenovirus (5%). 

Example Question #51 : Microbiology

Which of the following microbes is the most common cause of infectious vomiting and diarrhea in infants and small children?

Possible Answers:

Rotavirus

Giardia parasite

E. coli bacteria

Norovirus

Correct answer:

Rotavirus

Explanation:

The majority of infectious vomiting and diarrhea in infants and young children is viral in origin, with the most commonly implicated virus being rotavirus. Norovirus is  another common cause of viral gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages, though it is not as common in young children as rotavirus. 

Example Question #61 : Microbiology

Zika virus is primarily dangerous to which of the following populations?

Possible Answers:

Young children

Unborn fetuses

The elderly

Pregnant women

Correct answer:

Unborn fetuses

Explanation:

In most children and adults, Zika virus causes a mild fever characterized by myalgia, fatigue, and headache. The population most at risk for serious complications from the disease is unborn fetuses. Exposure to Zika virus before birth has been associated with microcephaly, a frequently fatal disorder of abnormal skull and brain development.

Example Question #252 : Nclex

Which of the following are structurally similar to the influenza virus

Possible Answers:

Paramyxoviruses

Coronaviridae

Retroviridae

Togaviridae

Rhabdoviridae

Correct answer:

Paramyxoviruses

Explanation:

Each of these viral families or groups has an RNA genome and envelope. The Paramyxoviruses are structurally the most closely related to influenza, since both are negative sense RNA viruses and many of the paramyxoviruses contain a neuraminidase and hemagglutinin. There are some notable differences, however. In the paramyxoviruses, both neuraminidase and hemagglutinin functions contained in a single glycoprotein on one type of spike, whereas in influenza, these functions are accomplished by two separate glycoproteins which on two types of spikes (except for Influenza C, which has both functions on a single glycoprotein). In addition, the genome is segmented in influenza, but not in the paramyxoviruses. The viruses in the Togaviridae and Coronaviridae families differ from the Influenza viruses in that they have a positive sense RNA genome. Viruses in the Rhabdoviridae family, which includes the vesicular stomatitis virus and the rabies virus, are bacilliform negative-stranded RNA viruses.

Example Question #62 : Microbiology

Paramyxoviruses possess hemagglutinin and neuraminidase that are present on the

Possible Answers:

Same spike

Different spikes

Golgi bodies

Endoplasmic reticulum

Nucleus

Correct answer:

Same spike

Explanation:

Paramyxoviruses possess hemagglutinin and neuraminidase that are present on the same spike. This is in contrast to the orthomyxoviruses that possess hemagglutinin and neuraminidase on different spikes.

Example Question #63 : Microbiology

These enveloped, pleomorphic, and ss-RNA viruses cause respiratory infections by droplet nuclei or contact transmission. These belong to the orthomyxovirus group and are called what??

Possible Answers:

Parainfluenza virus

Respiratory syncytial virus

Influenza virus

Lentiviruses

Correct answer:

Influenza virus

Explanation:

The influenza virus is a member of the orthomyxovirus group and is an enveloped ss-RNA virus. Lentiviruses are a group of retroviruses which include HIV-1. Parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belong to the paramyxovirus group.

Example Question #253 : Nclex

Which of the following is the most common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Possible Answers:

Coxsackievirus A

Parainfluenza Virus

Lassa Fever

Rotavirus

Herpes Simplex Virus

Correct answer:

Coxsackievirus A

Explanation:

Laryngotracheobronchitis, commonly known as croup, is one of the serious manifestation of parainfluenza virus infection in infants and young children. Parainfluenza type 1 is a common cause of croup, which results in subglottal swelling and airway obstruction. Major clinical manifestations include hoarseness, "barking" cough, tachypnea, tachycardia, and suprasternal retraction.

Cold sore is a recurrent mucocutaneous infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The individual retains HSV-1 DNA in the trigeminal ganglion for life following recovery from primary oropharyngeal HSV infection. Cold sores, also known as herpetic labialis, are manifested as a result of activation of HSV from the trigeminal ganglia. Cold sores are characterized by development of a cluster of vesicles around the mucocutaneous junction of the lips.

Rotaviruses can survive the acidic environment in stomach. The virus infects the small intestine and damages the epithelial cell lining the villi. The virus causes permeability changes and cell lysis, leading to malabsorption with water and electrolyte imbalance. Rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in young children and are associated with outbreaks in preschool and day care-centers. Rotaviruses cause extensive tissue damage, leading to serious fluid and electrolyte loss.

Lassa fever virus is an Arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever. Lassa fever virus is enzootic in the West African peridomestic rodent. The rodent transmits the virus to the human by contaminating the house with urine. The infection is characterized by fever, headache, malaise, coagulopathy, petechiae, vomiting, pharyngitis, and occasional visceral hemorrhage. Serious manifestations include carditis, hepatitis, encephalopathy, pneumonitis, conjunctivitis, etc. Cardiovascular collapse results in death in 20% of the hospitalized cases.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a vesicular exanthem caused by coxsackievirus A16. It is characterized by ulcerating vesicles on hand, foot, mouth, and tongue along with mild fever. The disease subsides in a few days on its own.

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