NCLEX : Viruses and Other Microorganisms

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #41 : Microbiology

A father brings in his seven year old son for "bumps" all over his arms and trunk. On examination, the nurse sees 20-30 small (1-5mm), flesh-colored, dome shaped papules. They are pearly and several have dimpled centers. They are not itchy, crusting, or painful. These lesions are most likely which of the following:

Possible Answers:

Chicken pox

Common warts

Herpes simplex

Molluscum contagiosum

Correct answer:

Molluscum contagiosum

Explanation:

The lesions described are most likely molluscum contagiosum, caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus. Molluscum contagiosum generally present as 1-5mm papules that are flesh-colored and dome shaped. The dimpled center may or may not be visible on papules, though this is considered pathognomonic for the virus. Common warts may present with a similar appearance, but will not generally present in such high numbers and don't have a dimpled appearance. Chicken pox lesions will generally be red and weeping or crusting, and herpes simplex lesions are not commonly seen outside of the oral mucosa, genital area, or fingers.

Example Question #41 : Microbiology

Which of the following viruses is the most common cause of febrile seizures?

Possible Answers:

Parvovirus B-19

Measles virus

Epstein Barr virus

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6)

Correct answer:

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6)

Explanation:

The majority of febrile seizures are caused by viral infections, with the most common virus involved being human herpes virus 6, or HHV-6. 

Example Question #41 : Microbiology

What is the incubation period for infectious mononucleosis?

Possible Answers:

2-3 days

7-14 days

14-28 days

30-50 days

Correct answer:

30-50 days

Explanation:

Infectious mononucleosis, a condition caused by Epstein Barr virus, has a very long incubation period: onset of the disease is typically 30-50 days after the time of initial infection.

Example Question #41 : Microbiology

Bell's palsy is associated with the reactivation of which of the following viral infections?

Possible Answers:

Cytomegalovirus

Herpes simplex 1

Rotavirus

Varicella zoster

Correct answer:

Herpes simplex 1

Explanation:

Bell's palsy is associated with reactivation of herpes simplex 1, a human herpes virus that can exist in latent form in the dorsal root ganglia of nerves in the head and neck. Reactivation of the virus causes the temporary unilateral facial paralysis associated with Bell's palsy. 

Example Question #11 : Identifying Viruses

What is the mortality rate for children infected with measles?

Possible Answers:

1 in 500

1 in 50

1 in 20

1 in 10,000

1 in 2,000

Correct answer:

1 in 500

Explanation:

Measles, while generally only a moderately severe disease, is fatal in one out of every 500 children who contract the virus.

Example Question #241 : Nclex

Genital herpes is caused by what virus?

Possible Answers:

Human herpes virus 7

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2

Herpes simplex virus type 2

Herpes simplex virus type 1

Correct answer:

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2

Explanation:

Genital herpes is most frequently associated with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), while herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) has been associated more often with oral herpes (cold sores). However, new evidence suggests that both viruses can live in either location: HSV1 can spread to the genitals and cause genital herpes, while HSV2 can be spread to the oral mucosa to cause cold sores.

Example Question #51 : Microbiology

Adult complications from cytomegalovirus (CMV) are most common in what population?

Possible Answers:

The elderly

Immunocompromised individuals

Athletes

Teens

Correct answer:

Immunocompromised individuals

Explanation:

In adult populations, cytomegalovirus poses the greatest risk to immunocompromised individuals, such as people on immunosuppressive drugs or in HIV patients who have developed AIDS. In pregnant people, CMV generally does not pose a risk to the mother, but rather to the fetus. Athletes and teens that are not immunocompromised often will have mild or unnoticeable symptoms when infected with CMV.

Example Question #11 : Identifying Viruses

What type of virus is molluscum contagiosum?

Possible Answers:

Retrovirus

Adenovirus

Poxvirus

Herpesvirus

Correct answer:

Poxvirus

Explanation:

Molluscum contagiosum is a form of poxvirus. Poxviruses are a family of enveloped group 1 double-stranded DNA viruses that includes molluscum contagiosum virus, smallpox virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox. 

Example Question #51 : Microbiology

Which of the following class of viruses is responsible for all warts, including plantar warts, genital warts, flat warts, and common warts?

Possible Answers:

Human papillomavirus

Epstein Barr virus

Cytomegalovirus

Herpes simplex

Correct answer:

Human papillomavirus

Explanation:

All forms of warts are caused by the virus HPV, or human papillomavirus. In addition, HPV is the cause of a variety of dysplasias, including cervical dysplasia, vulvar dysplasia, and oropharyngeal cancer. None of the other viruses listed are associated with warts of any kind.

Example Question #12 : Identifying Viruses

Over 70% of cervical cancers are associated with which two strains of human papillomavirus (HPV)?

Possible Answers:

6 and 11

16 and 18

31 and 33

2 and 7

Correct answer:

16 and 18

Explanation:

While HPV strains 31 and 33 have been associated with genital malignancies, more than 70% of cervical dysplasia is associated with HPV strains 16 and 18. Strains 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts, while 2 and 7 are associated with common warts.

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