NCLEX : Hormones

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #11 : Hormones

The pineal gland is located in the center of the brain. Which of the following hormones is the pineal gland responsible for regulating? 

Possible Answers:

Vitamin D

Vasopressin

Cortisol

Melatonin

Leptin

Correct answer:

Melatonin

Explanation:

The pineal gland is responsible for regulating melatonin. It is not known at this time to secrete any other hormone. Melatonin is thought to play a critical role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Cortisol is secreted by the adrenal cortex and is involved in regulating the stress response. Vitamin D become activated in three steps. First, ultraviolet light in the skin begins the process, then the process continues in the liver, and is completed in the kidney. The active form of vitamin D increases calcium absorption in the gut, decreases calcium loss in urine, and increases calcium mobilization from bone. Vasopressin is also known as antidiuretic hormone, and functions in water retention. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that tells the body that it is full, and not hungry.

Example Question #11 : Hormones

Which of the following are not considered endocrine glands? 

Possible Answers:

The thyroid

The pancreas

The salivary glands

The testes

The hypothalamus

Correct answer:

The salivary glands

Explanation:

Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. The endocrine glands include the ovaries, testes, hypothalamus, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal glands, pancreas, the pineal gland, and others. Salivary glands are considered exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts to the body surface or into body cavities, such as the mouth in the case of salivary glands.

Example Question #12 : Hormones

Catecholamines are hormones that are released into the blood in response to stress. Where in the body are catecholamines produced? 

Possible Answers:

The adrenal cortex

The thyroid gland

The adrenal medulla

The anterior pituitary gland

The parathyroid gland

Correct answer:

The adrenal medulla

Explanation:

Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal medulla. Adrenal glands are located above each kidney. Catecholamines may also function as neurotransmitters, important chemical messengers. They regulate the sympathetic nervous system's response to stress.

Example Question #12 : Endocrine And Immune Systems

The pancreas produces many hormones that are vital to body function. Which of the following is not produced by the pancreas? 

Possible Answers:

Somatostatin

Glucagon

Calcitonin

Lipase

Insulin

Correct answer:

Calcitonin

Explanation:

Calcitonin is produced by the thyroid gland. The hormone plays an important role in lowering blood calcium levels. It is also synthesized as a drug and used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. The other three hormones are indeed secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin, secreted by the beta cells lowers blood sugar, glucagon, secreted by the alpha cells, increases blood sugar, and somatostatin, secreted by the gamma cells regulates digestive and metabolic processes. Lipase is not a hormone, but an enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of lipids. The pancreas does indeed secrete lipase.

Example Question #272 : General Biology

Which of the following regarding the thyroid gland is false? 

Possible Answers:

The thyroid releases hormones in response to hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary

T3 is more potent than T4

The thyroid gland is located posterior to the trachea

Calcitonin is released by the thyroid

The thyroid gland produces more T4 than T3

Correct answer:

The thyroid gland is located posterior to the trachea

Explanation:

The thyroid gland is located (in front) anterior to the trachea. The parathyroid glands are located on the backside on the thyroid. The thyroid is stimulated in response to TSH produced by the anterior pituitary. It will then secrete T3 and T4 although T3 is more potent and produced in a lesser quantity. Calcitonin, a hormone which decreases blood calcium levels, is also produced by the thyroid.

Example Question #273 : General Biology

Which of the following hormones causes a feeling of satiety?

Possible Answers:

Insulin

Cortisol

Leptin

Growth hormone

Correct answer:

Leptin

Explanation:

Leptin is secreted by adipose cells, and acts on the arcuate nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus to promote the synthesis of alpha-MSH (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), which is a hunger suppressant. It also binds to receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY), a powerful hunger promoter, in the arcuate nucleus. 

None of the other hormones listed, while all involved in nutrient and blood sugar metabolism, directly trigger feeling of satiety.

Example Question #13 : Hormones

Which of the following will cause a decrease in leptin levels?

Possible Answers:

All of these are correct

Sleep deprivation

High testosterone

Exercise

Correct answer:

All of these are correct

Explanation:

Leptin, the hormone responsible for feelings of satiety, goes down during times of fasting, with high testosterone, during sleep deprivation, and during periods of prolonged exercise or physical training.

Example Question #275 : General Biology

Which of the following is not an effect of insulin?

Possible Answers:

Triggers lipolysis

Increases glycogen synthesis

Increases protein synthesis

Increases uptake of potassium ions

Correct answer:

Triggers lipolysis

Explanation:

Insulin has many physiological effects on metabolism. It increases uptake of glucose and various ions, especially potassium, from the blood. It promotes glycogen and protein synthesis, and encourages storage of fats. Conversely, insulin inhibits lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, and proteolysis.

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