NCLEX : Blood and Plasma

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #41 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

When drawing blood, the client tells the nurse that she is a universal recipient. The nurse knows this to mean that the patient has which type of blood?
Possible Answers:
AB positive
AB negative
O negative
A positive
Correct answer: AB positive
Explanation: AB positive is a universal recipient, meaning a patient with AB positive type blood can receive a blood transfusion using any type of blood.

Example Question #1 : Blood And Plasma

Every heme group in hemoglobin encloses an atom of what element?

Possible Answers:

Copper

Chromium

Iron

Magnesium

Correct answer:

Iron

Explanation:

Each heme group in hemoglobin encloses a single iron atom in the center of a protoporphyrin, a tetrapyrrol composed of four pyrrole rings linked together by four methyl groups, two vinyl groups, a methane bridge, and two propinoic acid side chains.

Example Question #20 : Circulatory System

What is the average lifespan of an erythrocyte?

Possible Answers:

6 months

6 weeks

3 months

4 months

Correct answer:

4 months

Explanation:

The average lifespan of a red blood cell is 4 months, after which it is phagocytosed by macrophages the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes. White blood cells, on the other hand, live for only about 3-4 days.

Example Question #1 : Blood And Plasma

What hormone stimulates the casting of new red blood cells?

Possible Answers:

Luteinizing hormone

Erythropoietin

Vasopressin

Thyroxine

Correct answer:

Erythropoietin

Explanation:

The casting of new red blood cells is stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), released from the kidneys. Recall that all blood cells are made in the bone marrow. This hormone may increase as much as 1000 fold in times of oxidative stress.

Thyroxine is T4, the most biologically active form of thyroid hormone. Vasopressin, or anti-diuretic hormone, is part of the body's fluid-balance system. Luteinizng hormone is a hormone of the reproductive tract: in females it triggers ovulation, while in males it stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone.

Example Question #51 : Circulatory And Respiratory Systems

Where is erythropoietin produced?

Possible Answers:

Lactotroph cells in the pituitary gland

Peritubular interstitial cells of the kidney

Supraoptic and paraventricular cells of the hypothalamus

Zona fasciculata cells of the adrenal glands

Correct answer:

Peritubular interstitial cells of the kidney

Explanation:

Erythropoietin is produced by the peritubular interstitial cells of the kidney. These cells are very sensitive to tissue oxygen pressure. When oxygen demand increases, erythropoietin is released, stimulating the casting (hematopoiesis) of new red blood cells in bone marrow. 

Supraoptic and paraventricular cells of the hypothalamus are the site of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) production. Lactotroph cells in the pituitary gland are responsible for the production of prolactin. Zona fasciculata cells of the adrenal glands produce cortisol.

Example Question #341 : General Biology

Neutrophils make up what percent of white blood cells in the blood?

Possible Answers:

70-90%

20-35%

2-6%

55-70%

Correct answer:

55-70%

Explanation:

Neutrophils are the most common type of white blood cell, making up 55-70% of the total white blood cell population in the average blood sample. 

Example Question #4 : Blood And Plasma

Eosinophils make up what percent of the average white blood cell count?

Possible Answers:

20-40%

1-3%

Less than 1%

5-15%

Correct answer:

1-3%

Explanation:

Eosinophils are the leukocytes that are largely responsible for response to parasitic infections and allergies. They make up 1-3% of the average white blood cell count. They form the second smallest population of white blood cells, after basophils, which normally make up less than 1% of white blood cells in whole blood. 

Example Question #5 : Blood And Plasma

Monocytes make up what percent of the average white blood cell count?

Possible Answers:

2-10%

Less than 1%

55-70%

26-33%

Correct answer:

2-10%

Explanation:

Monocytes, the largest of all the leukocytes, make up just 2-10% of the average white blood cell count. These white blood cells will mature into macrophages to phagocytose foreign matter.

Example Question #6 : Blood And Plasma

What is the role of macrophages in the immune response?

Possible Answers:

Antibody production

Release of histamine

Phagocytosis of bacteria, cancer cells, and cellular debris

Release of cytokines

Correct answer:

Phagocytosis of bacteria, cancer cells, and cellular debris

Explanation:

Macrophages consume bacteria, cancer cells, and cellular debris via phagocytosis. Once these elements are within the cell, the macrophage is able to use lysosomes to break them down and prepare them for release into the blood as waste, which will eventually be excreted. 

Example Question #7 : Blood And Plasma

What is the role of platelets in the blood?

Possible Answers:

Cytotoxicity

Clotting

Gas exchange

Histamine release

Correct answer:

Clotting

Explanation:

Platelets are small cell fragments that play an important role in hemostasis, or clot formation. Once activated, platelets release clotting factors that recruit more platelets till a clot is formed and bleeding stops.  

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