### Test: MCAT Physical

Diffusion can be defined as the net transfer of molecules down a gradient of differing concentrations. This is a passive and spontaneous process and relies on the random movement of molecules and Brownian motion. Diffusion is an important biological process, especially in the respiratory system where oxygen diffuses from alveoli, the basic unit of lung mechanics, to red blood cells in the capillaries.

Figure 1 depicts this process, showing an alveoli separated from neighboring cells by a capillary with red blood cells. The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are given. One such equation used in determining gas exchange is Fick's law, given by:

ΔV = (Area/Thickness) · Dgas · (P1 – P2)

Where ΔV is flow rate and area and thickness refer to the permeable membrane through which the gas passes, in this case, the wall of the avlveoli. P1 and P2 refer to the partial pressures upstream and downstream, respectively. Further, Dgas­, the diffusion constant of the gas, is defined as:

Dgas = Solubility / (Molecular Weight)^(1/2)

 1 Which following pair gives the correct equation, and change in pH, when carbon dioxide diffuses into blood?

CO2 + H2O   HCO3– | pH decreases

CO2 + H2O   H2CO3 | pH decreases

O2 + CO2 + H2O  H2O2 + CO32– | pH decreases

CO2 + H2O   H2CO3 | pH increases

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