MCAT Biology : Connective Tissue and Epithelium

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #2 : Connective Tissue Types And Properties

What is the means by which organisms maintain a constant internal environment in spite of fluctuations in the external environment?    

Possible Answers:

Geriatrics

Homeostasis

Physiology

Homeopathy

Reflexology

Correct answer:

Homeostasis

Explanation:

Homeostasis, or "steady-state" physiology, is the system of feedback loops that enables an organism to create a stable, adaptive environment. For example, the pancreas and the brain together work to regulate the blood sugar levels via the hormones insulin and glucagon.

Example Question #1 : Connective Tissue Types And Properties

What are the four types of tissue?   

Possible Answers:

Muscular, connective, nervous, epithelial

Muscular, cardiac, nervous, sensory

Cardiac, connective, sensory, epithelial

Sensory, connective, nervous, dermal

Muscular, dermal, gastric, epithelial

Correct answer:

Muscular, connective, nervous, epithelial

Explanation:

The four types of tissue are muscular, connective, nervous, and epithelial.

Muscular tissue encompasses skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Nervous tissue creates the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS, PNS) and consists of all neurons and glial cells. Epithelial tissue makes up "borders" and lines most organs. Connective tissue generally fills spaces and provides the suspensory matrices for the body, such as bone, fat, blood, and cartilage.

Example Question #791 : Biology

Which of the following is an example of an immovable joint?

Possible Answers:

Phalanges

Skull sutures

Pubic symphysis

Tarsal joints

Sacrailium

Correct answer:

Skull sutures

Explanation:

Immovable joints are fused shortly after birth, so that they are no longer functional for articulation. The bones of the skull remain open, joined with strips of cartilage, until an infant has passed through the birth canal. They stay open for a short period, giving the baby's brain room to grow. After the brain has finished its major growth stages, the bones of the skull knit together, forming a protective barrier.

Example Question #21 : Connective Tissue And Epithelium

Tendons connect which two structures?

Possible Answers:

Fat and fascia

Muscle and bone

Joint and bone

Muscle and muscle

Bone and bone

Correct answer:

Muscle and bone

Explanation:

Tendons connect muscles to bones, allowing for the muscle contraction to affect the bone and result in articulation. Tendons are essential to provide articulation and leverage points to for motion and locomotion.

Example Question #11 : Connective Tissue Types And Properties

Cartilage repair is slower than that of other connective tissues because __________.

Possible Answers:

cartilage contains a higher denisty of blood vessels than other connective tissue

chondrocytes have a larger surface area than cells of other connective tissues

chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion

chondrocytes produce a large amount of collagen

Correct answer:

chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion

Explanation:

Cartilage does not contain blood vessels. Chondrocytes, the specialized cells of cartilage, are supplied by diffusion, which slows growth and repair. While they do produce collagen, this is not the direct reason for the relatively slow growth of cartilage.

Example Question #23 : Connective Tissue And Epithelium

Passage:

In a fictional universe, a new life form is discovered that appears to have a number of similarities to humans. Since its discovery by humans, it has been studied with x-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography imaging (CT), as well as with blood chemistries and laboratory studies. Based upon such analyses, scientists have found that both structurally and functionally, this fictional species, called Lorempis marengis, is highly similar to humans. It has structures that appear similar to lungs that are active during respiration. It has a structure that is highly active at all times, especially so in different parts during different activities (similar to the human brain). It also appears to have a digestive tract with a mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus that is assumed to carry out the same functions at the cellular level as the parts of the human digestive tract. Scientists are now hoping to continue studying the organism at the cellular level to confirm their assumption that the cellular functions are indeed similar to those of human tissues.

If we assume that the muscle types and cells present in Lorempis marengis are the same, structurally and functionally, as those found in humans, which of the following muscle types best describes the type of muscle cell that lines the walls of most blood vessels?

Possible Answers:

Skeletal muscle

Biceps muscle

Smooth muscle

Striated muscle

Cardiac muscle

Correct answer:

Smooth muscle

Explanation:

The type of muscle that lines the walls of most blood vessels in the human body is smooth muscle. We are told to make the assumption that the muscle types and cells present in Lorempis marengis are the same, structurally and functionally, as those found in humans. Therefore, the type of muscle that lines the walls of most blood vessels in Lorempis marengis is also smooth muscle.  Blood vessels contain a specific subtype of smooth muscle, called vascular smooth muscle, that helps to regulate the distribution of blood volume throughout the entire body by either appropriately contracting or relaxing to restrict or increase blood flow to various parts of the body to best meet bodily needs (typically oxygen delivery).

Skeletal muscle cells, also known as striated muscles, are the type of muscle cells that make up the larger, weight-bearing muscles of the body. These are not the type of muscle cells that are found within the walls of blood vessels. The biceps muscles are the muscles responsible for flexion of the forearm at the elbow. They are not a type of muscle cell, per se, and they are made up of skeletal muscle cells. 

Cardiac muscle cells are the type of muscle cells that make up the myocardium, or muscle cells of the heart. These are not the type of muscle cells that are found within the walls of blood vessels.

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