MCAT Biology : Developmental Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #11 : Gastrulation And Embryonic Germ Layers

All of the following are formed from the same primary germ layer as the heart, except __________.

Possible Answers:

muscles

kidneys

the lungs

bones

Correct answer:

the lungs

Explanation:

The circulatory system is part of the mesoderm germ layer, and includes development of the heart. We know that three answer choices must also be part of the mesoderm, while one is not (the correct answer). The mesoderm is responsible for generating muscle, blood, and bone tissue, kidneys and gonads, as well as the heart.

This leaves us with lungs, the correct answer, which develop from the endoderm layer.

Example Question #51 : Reproductive System And Development

Which of the following organs does not develop from the mesoderm?

Possible Answers:

Bone

Kidney

Bladder

Heart

Skeletal muscle

Correct answer:

Bladder

Explanation:

The bladder develops from the endoderm. The heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and bone develop from the mesoderm.

Example Question #61 : Systems Biology And Tissue Types

In all vertebrates, when the optic cup does not develop in the embryo the lens also does not develop either. This provides evidence for which of the following statements?

Possible Answers:

The eye develops early in vertebrate morphogenesis

Cell differentiation is an all-or-nothing phenomenon

Cells may induce neighboring cells to differentiate

The process of neurulation follows gastrulation

Correct answer:

Cells may induce neighboring cells to differentiate

Explanation:

The failure of the lens to form in the absence of the optic cup indicates that the optic cup is necessary for lens development, and may in fact induce it.

This fact says nothing in regards to the timing of neurulation, nor the timing of eye development. Finally, cell differentiation is a gradual process, not all-or-nothing, and the statement is irrelevant to the development of the optic cup and lens.

Example Question #62 : Systems Biology And Tissue Types

What is the function of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)?

Possible Answers:

Negative feedback to inhibit menstrual cycle

Positive feedback to promote fetal growth hormones

Erythropoiesis in the fetus

Maternal satiation hormone

Female-to-male sexual differentiation in the fetus

Correct answer:

Female-to-male sexual differentiation in the fetus

Explanation:

Anti-Mullerian hormone is present only in male fetuses. It is responsible for the degeneration of the Mullerian ducts, which form the oviducts, uterus, and upper vagina in females.

Example Question #1 : Regulation Of Developmental Processes

A deficiency of calcium in the diet can result in which of the following conditions?

Possible Answers:

Two of these answers

Increased blood-oxygen carrying capacity

Muscle spasms

Osteoporosis

Reduced blood-oxygen carrying capacity

Correct answer:

Two of these answers

Explanation:

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes a decrease in bone mass and density and can be induced by malnutrition or calcium deficiency. Even if the disease appears unfamiliar, the prefix "osteo-" indicates a relationship to bone, which is closely linked to calcium levels int he body.

Calcium is also an important ion involved in neural action potentials; it is responsible for triggering the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. A calcium deficiency may cause improper action potentials that result in spasms.

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