Test: Human Anatomy and Physiology

The human immune system is organized along two broad arms: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The differences between these two approaches to immunity are not always black and white, but can be described in general terms with regard to immunological memory. Adaptive immunity displays this type of memory, and mounts a more intense response to pathogens upon second and subsequent exposures.

Within adaptive immunity, the system is further divided into humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. We can say that antibodies are the primary mediators of the former, while CD8 T-cell based cytotoxicity is the mediator of the latter.

CD4 T-cells, unlike their CD8 counterparts, are involved in both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of adaptive immunity. These CD4 cells drive isotype switching, a process that changes the types of antibodies produced after initial exposure to a pathogen to increase their molecular affinity. Additionally, CD4 cells promote the activity of macrophages to directly digest invading pathogens.

1.

A team of physicians is preparing a patient for a bone marrow transplant. To prevent graft-versus-host disease, where the transplanted T-cells attack the host into which they have been introduced, the physicians make sure that the donor and host have a matching human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type.

Which HLA gene product interacts with receptors on CD8 T-cells most avidly?

Major histocompatibility complex I

B7

CD8

Major histocompatibility complex II

CD5

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