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Transcendental Numbers

Transcendental numbers are either real or complex numbers that are not the root of any rational polynomial equation, meaning that they are not algebraic numbers.  They must be irrational numbers since a rational number , by definition, is an algebraic number.

Two common transcendental numbers are π , the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle with an approximate value of 3 .1416 and e , the base of the natural logarithms with an approximate value of 2.718

Euler is credit with defining transcendental numbers.

This is basically a college-level concept that would be encountered for the first time in a number theory course.