High School Biology : Understanding the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Body

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #11 : Understanding The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi Body

The main function of the nucleus is __________.

Possible Answers:

detoxification of toxins and poisons

produce proteins

DNA and RNA synthesis

produce enzymes

Correct answer:

DNA and RNA synthesis

Explanation:

The nucleus is the site of DNA replication, and transcription, which is the process by which DNA is converted to RNA. Enzymes are a class of proteins. All protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes, some of which are on the endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER), and some are floating in the cytoplasm. Detoxification of harmful substances is carried out by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Example Question #12 : Understanding The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi Body

The liver is plays a vital role in alcohol detoxification. Which of the following would one most likely observe when viewing a liver cell under a microscope?

Possible Answers:

Nuclei

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Correct answer:

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Explanation:

Cells associated with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are responsible for cellular detoxification; therefore, one would expect to see a higher concentration of smooth ER in liver cells.

Example Question #11 : Understanding The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi Body

Which organelle is used for detoxifying drugs?

Possible Answers:

Lysosome

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Correct answer:

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Explanation:

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions, one of which involves the detoxification of drugs and pollutants found in the body. Enzymes found in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum allow it to break down harmful drugs and toxins. Cells in the liver, called hepatocytes, have particularly large smooth endoplasmic reticulum regions, allowing them to be especially efficient at clearly toxins from the body.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are involved in protein modification, folding, and packaging. Lysosomes house enzymes that aid in breakdown of macromolecules and cellular wastes; they are specialized to remove biological waste, but are not well-suited to remove ingested toxins.

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