Common Core: 6th Grade English Language Arts : Reading to Evaluate the Argument and Specific Claims in a Text

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Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

"The Ruby-throated Hummingbird"

Geographical Range and Migration

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird is the sole representative of the hummingbird family in eastern North America. It is only a summer visitor in Canada and throughout the greater part of its range in the United States, excepting the southern portions of the Florida peninsula, where it winters to some extent. The majority of these birds migrate south, though, spending the winter in some of the Caribbean islands, while others pass through eastern Mexico into Central America. It usually arrives along our southern border in the latter part of March, rarely reaching the more northern States before the middle of May. It usually goes south again about the latter part of September, the males preceding the females, I believe, in both migrations. 

 

Appearance and Behavior

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have iridescent green feathers on their backs and white feathers on their bellies. The male birds have a patch of red feathers on their throats, from which the species derives its name. Both male and female Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have relatively short tails and beaks and lack any crest of feathers on their heads.

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds’ flight is extremely swift, and the rapid motions of its wings in passing back and forth from one cluster of flowers to another causes a humming or buzzing sound, from which the numerous members of this family derive their name of hummingbirds. Notwithstanding the very small size of most of our hummers, they are all extremely pugnacious, especially the males, and are constantly quarreling and chasing each other, as well as other birds, some of which are many times larger than themselves. Mr. Manly Hardy writes me that he once saw a male Ruby-throat chase a Robin out of his garden. They are rarely seen entirely at rest for any length of time, and, when not busy preening its feathers, they dart about from one place to another. Although such a small, tiny creature, it is full of energy, and never seems to tire.

They seem to be especially partial to anything red. Mr. Manly Hardy writes: "I was once camping on one of the many islands along the coast of Maine during a dense fog, which had held us prisoners for several days, as it was so thick that we could not find our way. We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them.”

 

What Do They Eat?

There appears to be considerable difference of opinion among various observers regarding the nature of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird’s food. Some contend that it consists principally of nectar sipped from flowers, as well as the sweet sap of certain trees. Others, myself included, believe that they subsist mainly on minute insects and small spiders, the latter forming quite an important article of food with them. Mr. Edwin H. Eames, of Bridgeport, Connecticut, mentions finding sixteen young spiders of uniform size in the throat of a young Hummingbird which was about two days old.

Mr. W. N. Clute, of Binghamton, New York, writes: "The swamp thistle, which blooms in August, seems to have great attractions for the Ruby-throated Hummingbirds. I have seen more than a hundred birds about these plants in the course of an hour. Since it has been stated that the bee gets pollen but not honey from the thistle, it would appear that these birds visit these flowers for insects. There is scarcely a flower that contains so many minute insects as a thistle head. Examine one with a lens and it will be found to contain many insects that can hardly be seen with the unaided eye, and if the Ruby-throat eats insects at all, these are the ones it would take; and because the larger ones remained the observer might conclude that none were eaten.” I could quote considerable more testimony showing that the Hummingbirds live to a great extent on minute spiders and insects, but consider it unnecessary.

That our Hummingbirds live to some extent on the sap of certain trees is undoubtedly true, but that they could exist for any length of time on such food alone is very questionable. They are particularly fond of the sap of the sugar maple, and only slightly less so of that of a few other species of trees. They are also fond of the nectar secreted in many flowers. While stationed at the former cavalry depot at St. Louis, Missouri, in 1873-74, I occupied a set of quarters that were completely overrun with large trumpet vines. When these were in bloom, the place fairly swarmed with Ruby-throats. They were exceedingly inquisitive, and often poised themselves before an open window and looked in my rooms full of curiosity, their bright little eyes sparkling like black beads. I have caught several, while busily engaged sipping nectar in these large, showy flowers, by simply placing my hand over them, and while so imprisoned they never moved, and feigned death, but as soon as I opened my hand they were off like a flash. 

 

07627v

 

Passage adapted from "Ruby-throated Hummingbird" from Issue 3 of Life Histories of North American Birds, From the Parrots to the Grackles, with Special Reference to Their Breeding Habits and Eggs by Charles Bendire (1895)

Image adapted from Giltsch, Adolf, Lithographer, and Ernst Haeckel. Trochilidae. - Kolibris. [Leipzig und Wien: Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1904] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/2015648985>.

 

Which of the following excerpts from the passage is part of the author’s evidence that Ruby-throated Hummingbirds are attracted to red objects?

Possible Answers:

“Mr. Edwin H. Eames, of Bridgeport, Connecticut, mentions finding sixteen young spiders of uniform size in the throat of a young Hummingbird which was about two days old.”

“They are rarely seen entirely at rest for any length of time, and, when not busy preening its feathers, they dart about from one place to another.”

“Since it has been stated that the bee gets pollen but not honey from the thistle, it would appear that these birds visit these flowers for insects.”

“They were exceedingly inquisitive, and often poised themselves before an open window and looked in my rooms full of curiosity, their bright little eyes sparkling like black beads.”

“We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them.”

Correct answer:

“We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them.”

Explanation:

In the last paragraph of the "Appearance and Behavior" section of the passage, the author states that Ruby-throated Hummingbirds "seem to be especially partial to anything red." He then says, 

Mr. Manly Hardy writes: "I was once camping on one of the many islands along the coast of Maine during a dense fog, which had held us prisoners for several days, as it was so thick that we could not find our way. We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them.”

This is the evidence that supports the author's assertion that Ruby-throated Hummingbirds like red objects. The only answer choice that appears in this excerpt is “We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them," so it is correct.

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

"The Ruby-throated Hummingbird"

Geographical Range and Migration

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird is the sole representative of the hummingbird family in eastern North America. It is only a summer visitor in Canada and throughout the greater part of its range in the United States, excepting the southern portions of the Florida peninsula, where it winters to some extent. The majority of these birds migrate south, though, spending the winter in some of the Caribbean islands, while others pass through eastern Mexico into Central America. It usually arrives along our southern border in the latter part of March, rarely reaching the more northern States before the middle of May. It usually goes south again about the latter part of September, the males preceding the females, I believe, in both migrations. 

 

Appearance and Behavior

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have iridescent green feathers on their backs and white feathers on their bellies. The male birds have a patch of red feathers on their throats, from which the species derives its name. Both male and female Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have relatively short tails and beaks and lack any crest of feathers on their heads.

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds’ flight is extremely swift, and the rapid motions of its wings in passing back and forth from one cluster of flowers to another causes a humming or buzzing sound, from which the numerous members of this family derive their name of hummingbirds. Notwithstanding the very small size of most of our hummers, they are all extremely pugnacious, especially the males, and are constantly quarreling and chasing each other, as well as other birds, some of which are many times larger than themselves. Mr. Manly Hardy writes me that he once saw a male Ruby-throat chase a Robin out of his garden. They are rarely seen entirely at rest for any length of time, and, when not busy preening its feathers, they dart about from one place to another. Although such a small, tiny creature, it is full of energy, and never seems to tire.

They seem to be especially partial to anything red. Mr. Manly Hardy writes: "I was once camping on one of the many islands along the coast of Maine during a dense fog, which had held us prisoners for several days, as it was so thick that we could not find our way. We had been living on lobsters, and lots of their red shells lay near the fire in front of our tent, when suddenly a Hummer came out of the fog and darted down at the shells, moving from one to another, seemingly loath to leave them.”

 

What Do They Eat?

There appears to be considerable difference of opinion among various observers regarding the nature of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird’s food. Some contend that it consists principally of nectar sipped from flowers, as well as the sweet sap of certain trees. Others, myself included, believe that they subsist mainly on minute insects and small spiders, the latter forming quite an important article of food with them. Mr. Edwin H. Eames, of Bridgeport, Connecticut, mentions finding sixteen young spiders of uniform size in the throat of a young Hummingbird which was about two days old.

Mr. W. N. Clute, of Binghamton, New York, writes: "The swamp thistle, which blooms in August, seems to have great attractions for the Ruby-throated Hummingbirds. I have seen more than a hundred birds about these plants in the course of an hour. Since it has been stated that the bee gets pollen but not honey from the thistle, it would appear that these birds visit these flowers for insects. There is scarcely a flower that contains so many minute insects as a thistle head. Examine one with a lens and it will be found to contain many insects that can hardly be seen with the unaided eye, and if the Ruby-throat eats insects at all, these are the ones it would take; and because the larger ones remained the observer might conclude that none were eaten.” I could quote considerable more testimony showing that the Hummingbirds live to a great extent on minute spiders and insects, but consider it unnecessary.

That our Hummingbirds live to some extent on the sap of certain trees is undoubtedly true, but that they could exist for any length of time on such food alone is very questionable. They are particularly fond of the sap of the sugar maple, and only slightly less so of that of a few other species of trees. They are also fond of the nectar secreted in many flowers. While stationed at the former cavalry depot at St. Louis, Missouri, in 1873-74, I occupied a set of quarters that were completely overrun with large trumpet vines. When these were in bloom, the place fairly swarmed with Ruby-throats. They were exceedingly inquisitive, and often poised themselves before an open window and looked in my rooms full of curiosity, their bright little eyes sparkling like black beads. I have caught several, while busily engaged sipping nectar in these large, showy flowers, by simply placing my hand over them, and while so imprisoned they never moved, and feigned death, but as soon as I opened my hand they were off like a flash. 

 

07627v

 

Passage adapted from "Ruby-throated Hummingbird" from Issue 3 of Life Histories of North American Birds, From the Parrots to the Grackles, with Special Reference to Their Breeding Habits and Eggs by Charles Bendire (1895)

Image adapted from Giltsch, Adolf, Lithographer, and Ernst Haeckel. Trochilidae. - Kolibris. [Leipzig und Wien: Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1904] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/2015648985>.

 

Which of the following excerpts contains a claim that is NOT supported by any evidence whatsoever in the passage?

Possible Answers:

“They seem to be especially partial to anything red.”

"It usually goes south again about the latter part of September, the males preceding the females, I believe, in both migrations."

“They are also fond of the nectar secreted in many flowers.”

“. . . they are all extremely pugnacious, especially the males, and are constantly quarreling and chasing each other, as well as other birds, some of which are many times larger than themselves.”

“Others, myself included, believe that they subsist mainly on minute insects and small spiders, the latter forming quite an important article of food with them.”

Correct answer:

"It usually goes south again about the latter part of September, the males preceding the females, I believe, in both migrations."

Explanation:

To answer this question, let's figure out which answer choices are supported by evidence. The one that's not will become apparent as we eliminate other answer choices.

“They are also fond of the nectar secreted in many flowers.” - This sentence is found in the section "What Do They Eat?" It is immediately followed by the author's story about how he has seen Ruby-throated Hummingbirds feeding from flowers near his window. This serves as evidence that Ruby-throated Hummingbirds are indeed fond of flower nectar. That means that this isn't the correct answer.

“Others, myself included, believe that they subsist mainly on minute insects and small spiders, the latter forming quite an important article of food with them.” - This statement is supported by not one, but two anecdotes that the author provides following it. Immediately after the sentence, the author writes, "Mr. Edwin H. Eames, of Bridgeport, Connecticut, mentions finding sixteen young spiders of uniform size in the throat of a young Hummingbird which was about two days old." In the next paragraph, he quotes another person at length who argues that because Hummingbirds are often around thistles, they must be eating the tiny bugs present in them. This statement isn't the correct answer because evidence is provided for it.

“They seem to be especially partial to anything red.” - This assertion is found in "Appearance and Behavior." It is followed by a story that the author has heard from another person about how a Ruby-throated Hummingbird was seen darting around red lobster shells. This is evidence, so this isn't the correct answer.

“. . . they are all extremely pugnacious, especially the males, and are constantly quarreling and chasing each other, as well as other birds, some of which are many times larger than themselves.” - This part of the "Appearance and Behavior" section is immediately followed by the sentence, "Mr. Manly Hardy writes me that he once saw a male Ruby-throat chase a Robin out of his garden." This acts as evidence, so this answer choice isn't correct either.

"It usually goes south again about the latter part of September, the males preceding the females, I believe, in both migrations." - This sentence is found at the end of the first paragraph, and the author offers no evidence to support it. He even qualifies his statement a bit with the interrupting phrase "I believe," suggesting that this is his opinion and he might be wrong about it. This is the correct answer because this statement is not supported by evidence in the passage.

 

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Adapted from “Theodore Roosevelt the Rancher.” National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 1 July 2016. <https://www.nps.gov/thro/learn/historyculture/theodore-roosevelt-the-rancher.htm>.

Theodore Roosevelt originally came to Dakota Territory in 1883 to hunt bison. The locals showed little interest in helping this eastern tenderfoot. The promise of quick cash, however, convinced Joe Ferris—a 25-year-old Canadian living in the Badlands—to act as Roosevelt's hunting guide.

Through terrible weather and awful luck, Roosevelt showed a determination which surprised his exasperated hunting guide. Finding a bison proved difficult; most of the herds had been slaughtered in recent years by commercial hunters. When they were not sleeping outdoors, Roosevelt and Ferris used the small ranch cabin of Gregor Lang as a base camp. Evenings at Lang's ranch saw an exhausted Ferris falling asleep to conversations between Roosevelt and their host. Spirited debates on politics gave way to discussions about ranching, and Roosevelt became interested in raising cattle in the Badlands.

Cattle ranching in Dakota was a boom business in the 1880s. With the northern plains recently devoid of bison, cattle were being driven north from Texas to feed on the nutritious grasses. The Northern Pacific Railroad offered a quick route to eastern markets without long drives that reduced the quality of the meat. Entrepreneurs like the Marquis de Morès were bringing money and infrastructure to the region. The opportunity struck Roosevelt as a sound business opportunity.

With Roosevelt's interest sparked, he entered into business with his guide's brother, Sylvane Ferris, and Bill Merrifield, another Dakota cattleman. Roosevelt put down an initial investment of $14,000—significantly more than his annual salary. Roosevelt returned to New York with instructions for Ferris and Merrifield to build the Maltese Cross Cabin. His investment was not purely for business; Roosevelt saw it as a chance to immerse himself in a western lifestyle he had long romanticized.

According to the passage, what were the two major motives Roosevelt had in investing in a cattle ranch?

Possible Answers:

He was interested in living in the West and also thought he could make money by owning a cattle ranch.

He was interested in living in the West and also wanted to hunt bison often.

He was interested in garnering support in western states during an election year and thought he could make some money by owning a cattle ranch.

He was interested in living in the West and also wanted to garner support in western states during an election year.

He wanted to hunt bison often and he thought he could make money by owning a cattle ranch.

Correct answer:

He was interested in living in the West and also thought he could make money by owning a cattle ranch.

Explanation:

To figure out what Roosevelt's two major motives were for investing in a cattle ranch, we'll need to consult the passage. In the third paragraph, the author provides details about the cattle ranching industry at the time Roosevelt was considering investing and how it looked like he could make money by doing so. The paragraph concludes, "The opportunity struck Roosevelt as a sound business opportunity." Later, in the fourth paragraph, the author states, "His investment was not purely for business; Roosevelt saw it as a chance to immerse himself in a western lifestyle he had long romanticized." In these excerpts, the passage tells us that Roosevelt was interested in cattle ranching for two reasons: he thought he could make money from a cattle ranch, and owning a cattle ranch would allow him to live a western lifestyle. The answer choice that best matches this conclusion is "He was interested in living in the West and also thought he could make money by owning a cattle ranch," so it is the correct answer.

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Archaeologists working in two recently discovered limestone caves in Sarawak, Malaysia have found a collection of 51 paintings estimated to be 6,000 to 12,000 years old. The paintings are unusual in their medium, manner of display, and subject matter. These are not simply wall or ceiling paintings. Stones—some as small as notebooks, some as large as doors—have been chipped and otherwise shaped to form rough canvases on which are painted individual works.

Some of the pieces are stacked, while others are arranged upright in an overlapping pattern so that one can “flip through” the smaller pieces in the collection with relative ease. Hunters, warriors, and hunted animals, the typical subjects of cave art, are largely absent from these works. Instead, domestic scenes are represented, including food preparations, family meals, and recreational activities.

Though no tools have been found in the area, the fineness of the lines suggests the use of sophisticated animal-hair brushes. Gypsum, manganese, malachite, and other minerals were painstakingly ground and mixed with binding materials such as vegetable and animal oils to form the paints. One probable reason for the high level of artistry is that the paintings may have been produced in the open air, where the light was good, and then brought into the cave.

However, it is the purpose of the paintings that is the most curious. Most interestingly, it may be that the collection represents a sort of family tree. A number of the paintings appear to feature some of the same people, and it is tempting to think of these works as family portraits. Indeed, one figure, seen as a child with a mark on its forehead—the stone has actually been chipped away to represent the mark—is shown in other paintings as a young person and as an adult with the same mark.

Which of the following is a primary claim the author makes in this passage?

Possible Answers:

The author claims that Malaysian artists painted elaborate self-portraits to be displayed on canvas.

The author is claiming that painters in Malaysia created works of art depicting family portraits on pieces of stones.

The author is claiming that Malaysian painters created stone canvases to display hunters and warriors in positions of power.

The author is claiming that pieces of stone were carved into beautiful sculptures by Malaysian artists.

Correct answer:

The author is claiming that painters in Malaysia created works of art depicting family portraits on pieces of stones.

Explanation:

The author is claiming that painters in Malaysia created works of art depicting family portraits on pieces of stones. The author gives information about the paintings and the artists and makes the claim that they resemble a family tree or family portraits. The author elaborates and gives details about why he/she thinks this.

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Archaeologists working in two recently discovered limestone caves in Sarawak, Malaysia have found a collection of 51 paintings estimated to be 6,000 to 12,000 years old. The paintings are unusual in their medium, manner of display, and subject matter. These are not simply wall or ceiling paintings. Stones—some as small as notebooks, some as large as doors—have been chipped and otherwise shaped to form rough canvases on which are painted individual works.

Some of the pieces are stacked, while others are arranged upright in an overlapping pattern so that one can “flip through” the smaller pieces in the collection with relative ease. Hunters, warriors, and hunted animals, the typical subjects of cave art, are largely absent from these works. Instead, domestic scenes are represented, including food preparations, family meals, and recreational activities.

Though no tools have been found in the area, the fineness of the lines suggests the use of sophisticated animal-hair brushes. Gypsum, manganese, malachite, and other minerals were painstakingly ground and mixed with binding materials such as vegetable and animal oils to form the paints. One probable reason for the high level of artistry is that the paintings may have been produced in the open air, where the light was good, and then brought into the cave.

However, it is the purpose of the paintings that is the most curious. Most interestingly, it may be that the collection represents a sort of family tree. A number of the paintings appear to feature some of the same people, and it is tempting to think of these works as family portraits. Indeed, one figure, seen as a child with a mark on its forehead—the stone has actually been chipped away to represent the mark—is shown in other paintings as a young person and as an adult with the same mark.

Where in the text do you find evidence to support the author’s claim regarding the purpose of the paintings?

Possible Answers:

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 4

Correct answer:

Paragraph 4

Explanation:

“However, it is the purpose of the paintings that is the most curious. Most interesting, it may be that the collection represents a sort of family tree. A number of the paintings appear to feature some of the same people, and it is tempting to think of these works as family portraits. Indeed, one figure, seen as a child with a mark on its forehead—the stone has actually been chipped away to represent the mark—is shown in other paintings as a young person and as an adult with the same mark.” The entirety of paragraph 4 is the evidence to support or back-up the author’s claim that the paintings were created as a family tree or as portraits.

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Marian Anderson was a world-class singer. By the year 1939, Marian had sung for people around the world, including kings and presidents. Her dream was to sing at Constitution Hall but in her mind, she viewed it as something that would never happen. The owners, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), would not allow her to sing because she was African-American.

Marian was used to dealing with people who only saw her for her skin color. When she was younger she applied to become a student at a music school. She was denied entrance because of her race. In the early 1900s when Marian was beginning her singing career segregation was still keeping African-American people from achieving their goals and dreams.

Marian performed in 1925 in a voice contest in New York and won. She was able to sing with the New York Philharmonic! She thought doors were going to start opening for her in the United States but instead, people foolishly turned her away. Marian traveled to Europe in 1928 and she became quite popular.

In 1939, she returned to the United States but she was still subject to the cruelty and unfairness of racism and segregation. When Marian attempted to sing at Constitution Hall the DAR had many excuses for why she couldn’t perform. They tried telling her the dates weren’t available or they weren’t booking. Eventually, they told Marian the truth, she couldn’t perform because they only allowed white musicians.

This rejection inspired thousands of people to rally together against the horrible segregation laws that prevented so many from hearing Marian’s beautiful voice. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the DAR and publicly shamed them for their treatment of African-America performers. Mrs. Roosevelt and her staff arranged a concert at the Lincoln Memorial for Marian. Seventy-five thousand people attended and stood against discrimination.

After the DAR incident, Marian took a stand and refused to sing for segregated crowds. She finally achieved her dream of singing at Constitution Hall when the DAR reversed its policy on allowing African-American performers. In 1964 Marian retired from performing and The Civil Rights Act was signed. She along with other brave activists took a stand and created lasting change against racism and segregation in the United States.

Which of the following claims is not supported by evidence?

Possible Answers:

Marian was an important activist in the Civil Rights movement.

Marian Anderson was a world-class singer.

The DAR did not allow African-American performers in Constitution Hall for many years.

All of these claims are properly supported.

Correct answer:

All of these claims are properly supported.

Explanation:

The author makes claims about Marian’s experiences and contributions and gives examples and evidence to support or back them up.

Example Question #1 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Marian Anderson was a world-class singer. By the year 1939, Marian had sung for people around the world, including kings and presidents. Her dream was to sing at Constitution Hall but in her mind, she viewed it as something that would never happen. The owners, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), would not allow her to sing because she was African-American.

Marian was used to dealing with people who only saw her for her skin color. When she was younger she applied to become a student at a music school. She was denied entrance because of her race. In the early 1900s when Marian was beginning her singing career segregation was still keeping African-American people from achieving their goals and dreams.

Marian performed in 1925 in a voice contest in New York and won. She was able to sing with the New York Philharmonic! She thought doors were going to start opening for her in the United States but instead, people foolishly turned her away. Marian traveled to Europe in 1928 and she became quite popular.

In 1939, she returned to the United States but she was still subject to the cruelty and unfairness of racism and segregation. When Marian attempted to sing at Constitution Hall the DAR had many excuses for why she couldn’t perform. They tried telling her the dates weren’t available or they weren’t booking. Eventually, they told Marian the truth, she couldn’t perform because they only allowed white musicians.

This rejection inspired thousands of people to rally together against the horrible segregation laws that prevented so many from hearing Marian’s beautiful voice. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the DAR and publicly shamed them for their treatment of African-America performers. Mrs. Roosevelt and her staff arranged a concert at the Lincoln Memorial for Marian. Seventy-five thousand people attended and stood against discrimination.

After the DAR incident, Marian took a stand and refused to sing for segregated crowds. She finally achieved her dream of singing at Constitution Hall when the DAR reversed its policy on allowing African-American performers. In 1964 Marian retired from performing and The Civil Rights Act was signed. She along with other brave activists took a stand and created lasting change against racism and segregation in the United States.

Which of the following is a claim made by the author?

Possible Answers:

Marian was not only a wonderful singer but an activist for the Civil Rights movement as well.

Marian and the DAR saw eye-to-eye about performing at Constitution Hall and got along well.

The Civil Rights movement didn’t need Marian as a participant, she actually hurt the movement.

Marian was only known as a famous performer and tried to keep it that way.

Correct answer:

Marian was not only a wonderful singer but an activist for the Civil Rights movement as well.

Explanation:

The author supports these claims by describing how well-liked Marian is as a performer and discusses her career. The author also conveys all of the activist related activities that Marian participates in and the lasting change that she makes.

Example Question #2 : Reading To Evaluate The Argument And Specific Claims In A Text

Nearly all the workers of the Lowell textile mills of Massachusetts were unmarried daughters from farm families. Some of the workers were as young as 10. Many people in the 1820s were upset by the idea of working females. The company provided well-kept dormitories for the women to live in. The meals were decent and church attendance was mandatory. Compared to other factories of the time, the Lowell mills were clean and safe. There was even a journal, The Lowell Offering, which contained poems and other material written by the workers, and which became known beyond New England. Ironically, it was at the Lowell mills that dissatisfaction with working conditions brought about the first organization of working women.

The work was difficult. When wages were cut, the workers organized the Factory Girls Association. 15,000 women decided to “turn out,” or walk off the job. The Offering, meant as a pleasant creative outlet, gave the women a voice that could be heard elsewhere in the country, and even in Europe. However, the ability of women to demand changes was limited. The women could not go for long without wages with which to support themselves and families. This same limitation hampered the effectiveness of the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association (LFLRA), organized in 1844.

No specific changes can be directly credited to the Lowell workers, but their legacy is unquestionable. The LFLRA’s founder, Sarah Bagley, became a national figure, speaking before the Massachusetts House of Representatives. When the New England Labor Reform League was formed, three of the eight board members were women. Other mill workers took note of the Lowell strikes and were successful in getting better pay, shorter hours, and safer working conditions. Even some existing child labor laws can be traced back to efforts first set in motion by the Lowell mills women.

Which of the following claims does the author make in this passage?

Possible Answers:

The LFLRA was a group of women fighting for the right to vote.

The Factory Girls Association is responsible for several specific changes to labor laws.

The women of the LFLRA were some of the first workers to start a labor reform movement.

The workers of the Lowell textile mills were pleased with their working conditions and wages.

Correct answer:

The women of the LFLRA were some of the first workers to start a labor reform movement.

Explanation:

The author supports this claim with evidence in the text, “No specific changes can be directly credited to the Lowell workers, but their legacy is unquestionable...Other mill workers took note of the Lowell strikes and were successful in getting better pay, shorter hours, and safer working conditions. Even some existing child labor laws can be traced back to efforts first set in motion by the Lowell mills women.

Example Question #111 : Reading

Nearly all the workers of the Lowell textile mills of Massachusetts were unmarried daughters from farm families. Some of the workers were as young as 10. Many people in the 1820s were upset by the idea of working females. The company provided well-kept dormitories for the women to live in. The meals were decent and church attendance was mandatory. Compared to other factories of the time, the Lowell mills were clean and safe. There was even a journal, The Lowell Offering, which contained poems and other material written by the workers, and which became known beyond New England. Ironically, it was at the Lowell mills that dissatisfaction with working conditions brought about the first organization of working women.

The work was difficult. When wages were cut, the workers organized the Factory Girls Association. 15,000 women decided to “turn out,” or walk off the job. The Offering, meant as a pleasant creative outlet, gave the women a voice that could be heard elsewhere in the country, and even in Europe. However, the ability of women to demand changes was limited. The women could not go for long without wages with which to support themselves and families. This same limitation hampered the effectiveness of the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association (LFLRA), organized in 1844.

No specific changes can be directly credited to the Lowell workers, but their legacy is unquestionable. The LFLRA’s founder, Sarah Bagley, became a national figure, speaking before the Massachusetts House of Representatives. When the New England Labor Reform League was formed, three of the eight board members were women. Other mill workers took note of the Lowell strikes and were successful in getting better pay, shorter hours, and safer working conditions. Even some existing child labor laws can be traced back to efforts first set in motion by the Lowell mills women.

Where in the text do you find evidence to support the claim that the women of LFLRA were important in the labor reform movement?

Possible Answers:

There is no evidence to support the claim.

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 3

Correct answer:

Paragraph 3

Explanation:

The claim the author makes is that the women of the LFLRA were contributors to the labor reform movement. “No specific changes can be directly credited to the Lowell workers, but their legacy is unquestionable...Other mill workers took note of the Lowell strikes and were successful in getting better pay, shorter hours, and safer working conditions. Even some existing child labor laws can be traced back to efforts first set in motion by the Lowell mills women.”

Example Question #21 : Integration Of Knowledge And Ideas

Text 1:

Genetic investigations into the origins of human life most often focus on mitochondrial DNA. As opposed to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA is transmitted only from the mother. This allows for the tracing of mutations that arise independently of changes that occur because of the combining of the mother’s and father’s DNA. As useful as this is, the high mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA allows scientists to look at only relatively recent prehistory. 

Text 2:

Nuclear DNA, on the other hand, has a low mutation rate, making it ideal for looking into the more distant past. Studying the nuclear DNA of fossils now shows a substantial decrease in population size in Europe and Asia approximately 50-80 thousand years ago. No such decrease happened in Africa. This supports the idea that migrants from Africa replaced all previous humans, and did not interbreed with earlier migrants.

 

Which of the following describes the claims made in the two texts?

Possible Answers:

The two authors express views that directly contradict each other.

The two authors express views that directly contradict each other.

The two authors express different views that are compatible with each other.

The two authors express views that directly contradict each other.

Correct answer:

The two authors express different views that are compatible with each other.

Explanation:

Answer: The two authors express different views that are compatible with each other. Text 1 focuses on the benefit of using mitochondrial DNA whereas text 2 discusses why nuclear DNA is ideal to study the origins of human life. The authors are discussing the same topic but have different views about the specifics.

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