AP World History : War and Civil Conflict 600 BCE to 600 CE

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Who was the prominent Gaul who attempted to unite his country under one banner during the Gallic Wars? 

Possible Answers:

Asterix

Theodorix

Gergovia

Ambiorix

Vercingetorix 

Correct answer:

Vercingetorix 

Explanation:

Vercingetorix, chieftain of the Arverni, was a prominent Gallic chieftain during the Gallic wars. Seeing that the divisions among Gallic tribes were being exploited by Caesar, he eventually became the king of a confederation of tribes, and even managing to defeat the Romans at Gergovia. However, he was defeated and captured during the Battle of Alesia, after which Caesar shipped him back to Rome to act as a trophy for the victorious Romans. After Caesar felt he had outlived his usefulness, he had him strangled in his prison cell. 

Example Question #22 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which gladiator and tactician was the cause of the Gladiator Rebellion?  

Possible Answers:

Agron

Gemmicus

Spartacus

Crassus

Crixus

Correct answer:

Spartacus

Explanation:

Spartacus was a Thracian slave who, after beginning the Third Servile War, revealed himself to be a surprisingly able general in the field. He was able to move up and down the Italian countryside with impunity before being defeated by a Roman army under Crassus. In the modern era, Spartacus has come to envision the plight of the common man, most notably in the Stanley Kubrick film that bears his name. 

Example Question #23 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which was the defeat that ended Marcus Crassus' Parthian campaign? 

Possible Answers:

Battle of the Teutoberg Forest

Alesia

Carrhae

Cannae

Adrianople

Correct answer:

Carrhae

Explanation:

Crassus, blinded by the riches of the Parthian Empire, led an army into Parthian territory with the intent of conquering Parthia and claiming its riches for himself. Crassus also wanted to prove himself as a capable military leader after being upstaged by Pompey during the Third Servile War. However, he made a number of blunders (outpacing his supply lines, going to far into Parthia without support, etc.) When the Parthians did attack, the Romans were exhausted and starved, leading to one of the most resounding defeats in the entire history of Rome. 

Example Question #24 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which battle decided the war between Octavian and Marc Antony?

Possible Answers:

Zama

Actium

Cannae

Massila

Faesulae

Correct answer:

Actium

Explanation:

The Battle of Actium, off the coast of Greece, finally decided the war between Octavian (later Augustus) and Marc Antony. With his naval power crushed, Antony could no longer mount a campaign against Octavian, who already held Italy. This led to his infamous joint suicide with Cleopatra. Octavian became sole emperor of Rome, as well as the first true emperor of Rome. 

Example Question #25 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which Roman general won the Battle of Actium? 

Possible Answers:

Pompey the Great

Julius Caesar

Marc Antony

Agrippa

Octavian

Correct answer:

Agrippa

Explanation:

While Actium made Octavian Emperor of Rome, it was Agrippa who led the actual fighting. Octavian's friend from childhood, Agrippa was a fearsome naval strategist and powerful ally, so much so as to marry Julia, the emperor's only daughter. Later in life, he would fall out of favor with Augustus, only to be recalled when needed to quell rumblings of uprising in Rome. 

Example Question #26 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of Caesar's campaigns is chronicled in a famous military history text?

Possible Answers:

The Gallic Wars

The Gladiator Rebellion

The Spanish Wars

The Parthian Campaign

The Civil Wars

Correct answer:

The Gallic Wars

Explanation:

The Gallic Wars, and the journal of the same name, refer to the series of conflicts with Gallic tribes that eventually brought Gaul (modern-day France) into the Roman fold. While his tactics were brilliant, Caesar's motives were more suspect, as he used wealth gathered from Gaul during his campaigns to fund his eventual bid for Emperor in Rome. Be that as it may, Commentaries on the Gallic Wars is still studied in military history classes today.

Example Question #27 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which two Persian emperors were responsible for the two Persian invasions of Greece?

Possible Answers:

Xerxes I and Xerxes II

Darius I and Xerxes I

Cyrus I and Cyrus II

Cyrus I and Xerxes I

Cyrus I and Darius I 

Correct answer:

Darius I and Xerxes I

Explanation:

The Persian empire was the preeminent power in what is now the Middle East for much of antiquity. After securing power in what is now Turkey, including a number of Ionian Greek cities on the coast, Greece became a natural place to expand. However, both expeditions ended in failure, and Persia was never able conquer the peninsula. 

Example Question #28 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which military formation are the ancient Greeks and Macedonians famous for?

Possible Answers:

The Phalanx

The Square

The Triangle

The Armada

The Legion

Correct answer:

The Phalanx

Explanation:

The phalanx was a rectangular mass of troops, normally with spears, pikes or other long melee weapons. They were almost impossible to attack head on, as troops would rush right into a mass of spears. The phalanx would meet its match in the more flexible Roman legion, falling out of style as the Romans ascended. 

Example Question #29 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Who is the Carthaginian general who nearly destroyed Rome, even penetrating deep into the Italian peninsula? 

Possible Answers:

Hasdrubal

Mago

Maharbal 

Hannibal

Bomilcar

Correct answer:

Hannibal

Explanation:

Hannibal Barca, one of the preeminent military minds of his age, nearly managed to destroy the Roman Empire. Using a daring traversal of the Alps with his War Elephants, Hannibal reached the gates of Rome before lack of supply and reinforcement made him retreat. After the fall of Carthage, he fled to modern-day Turkey, a guest of monarchs and a living symbol of Roman vulnerability. 

Example Question #30 : War And Civil Conflict 600 Bce To 600 Ce

What event prompted the Persian emperor Darius I to invade Greece?

Possible Answers:

Sparta's building a navy

An insult levied on Darius by a Spartan ambassador

The Revolt of the Ionian Greek cities

The defection of Persian cities to Greek city-states

Athens' invasion of Persian territory

Correct answer:

The Revolt of the Ionian Greek cities

Explanation:

The Revolt of the Ionian Greek cities (in modern day Turkey) was the perfect excuse for Darius to invade the Greek mainland. As cities such as Athens aided the rebel cities, Darius was able to construe this as an act of war and wage his campaign to expand his empire. Unfortunately for Darius, he did not count on the Greeks' resolve and knowledge of their own terrain, which resulted in his defeat at the Battle of Marathon. 

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