AP World History : Science and Technology 1450 to 1750

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #61 : Science And Technology

Select the correct outcome of Galileo Galilei’s 1633 trial before officials of the Catholic Church.

Possible Answers:

Galileo was acquitted of all charges and legally vindicated

Galileo was convicted of heresy but his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by Pope Urban VIII

Galileo was convicted of heresy, sentenced to death, and executed

Galileo was found guilty and was forced to publicly renounce his belief in Copernicanism and heliocentrism

Galileo was found guilty, banned from publishing any further scientific works, and forced into exile for the remainder of his life

Correct answer:

Galileo was found guilty and was forced to publicly renounce his belief in Copernicanism and heliocentrism

Explanation:

For many people, the 1633 trial of Galileo Galilei by the highest officials of the Catholic Church is the supreme epitome of conflict and incompatibility between organized religion and modern science. For many years prior to his trial, Galileo had been a widely known proponent of Nicolaus Copernicus’s theory of heliocentrism, which clearly contradicted Scriptural teachings about the creation of the natural world. Yet for most of his life, Galileo had been left alone by the Catholic Church, which was arguably powerful enough to have stopped him from publicly speaking or publishing any time it chose. The Church actually took action first against Copernicus; in 1616, the Catholic Inquisition banned further publication and reading of his work, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Quite naturally, Galileo disagreed with this prohibition and he continued to serve as an advocate for heliocentrism. Events finally converged in 1633, when Galileo was arrested and accused of promoting Copernicanism and possibly also of possessing the astronomer’s banned works. Galileo was tried before a Church court, staffed by the highest Catholic officials (including the Pope). He was found guilty, forced to publicly revoke his support for Copernicus, and had to spend the remaining nine years of his life living under house arrest in Florence. Centuries later, in 1992, the Catholic Church issued a formal apology to Galileo and vindicated his beliefs and his courage.

Example Question #62 : Science And Technology

The invention of __________ allowed for the rapid spread of ideas during the Protestant Reformation.

Possible Answers:

the internal combustion engine

the telegraph

the printing press

the steam engine

gunpowder

Correct answer:

the printing press

Explanation:

The printing press was invented, in Europe, by Johannes Gutenberg in the fifteenth century. The invention of the printing press allowed for pamphlets and essays to be widely produced for the first time in European history. This facilitated the spread of ideas in Europe and allowed for the rapid spread of the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century.

Example Question #311 : Cultural History

The introduction of __________ threatened to disrupt the feudal system of medieval Japan.

Possible Answers:

electricity

potatoes

firearms

maize

radio

Correct answer:

firearms

Explanation:

The feudal system, in both Europe and Japan, was built on the premise that certain individuals are more skilled and have better training in weapons than others.  Archery and swordsmanship were both difficult skills, which had to be mastered over a period of years. Those skilled individuals were able to gain power for themselves by agreeing to fight on behalf of landowners and in defense of serfs living on the land. However, the introduction of firearms changed this arrangement. Suddenly anyone with access to a gun could shoot and kill with very little training. This contributed to the decline of the feudal system in Europe, and, when guns were introduced to Japanese society, threatened to disrupt the feudal system in Japan.

Example Question #62 : Science And Technology

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is most often remembered for __________.

Possible Answers:

inventing the steam engine

his pioneering work in microbiology

his vitriolic attack against the abuses of the Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation

inventing the system of mathematics known as calculus

writing a book about his travels to China and the Far East

Correct answer:

his pioneering work in microbiology

Explanation:

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is most often remembered for his pioneering work in microbiology. He made dramatic refinements to the technology of microscopes, allowing them to magnify to much greater extremes. He made many of the first human observations of different types of cells.

Example Question #21 : Science And Technology 1450 To 1750

The Three Laws of Motion were first proposed by __________.

Possible Answers:

Humphry Davy

Nicholas Copernicus

Isaac Newton

Robert Hooke

Galileo

Correct answer:

Isaac Newton

Explanation:

The Three Laws of Motion were first proposed by Isaac Newton. The Three Laws of Motion (which Newton published in the late seventeenth century) revolutionized, some might say invented, the area of science known as physics, and established Newton as one of the leading scientific figures in human history.

Example Question #23 : Science And Technology 1450 To 1750

Gerardus Mercator is famous for his innovations in __________.

Possible Answers:

microbiology

astronomy

cartography

mathematics

anatomy

Correct answer:

cartography

Explanation:

Gerardus Mercator was a “cartographer” (mapmaker) in the sixteenth century. He made several adjustments to the way maps are made that continue to persist to this day and which made navigation much easier during his own time period.

 

Example Question #21 : Science And Technology 1450 To 1750

Which of these best describes the effects of the invention of the printing press?

Possible Answers:

Ideas spread more quickly and literacy rates in Europe improved markedly

Ships were able to navigate the oceans more effectively and merchants grew wealthier as long distance trading ventures became less risky

Religious unorthodoxy was discouraged and Catholicism became the dominant religion on the European continent

Religious unorthodoxy was encouraged and Catholicism was mostly removed from the European continent

Armies fought more effectively and soldiers were more able to survive injuries sustained on the battlefield

Correct answer:

Ideas spread more quickly and literacy rates in Europe improved markedly

Explanation:

The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century changed a great deal about European society. For the first time ideas could be spread quickly around the continent. It also led to a marked rise in European literacy rates as more reading material begat more consumers.

Example Question #65 : Science And Technology

What was the primary significance of the invention of caravels?

Possible Answers:

They allowed European explorers to traverse the globe

They prevented the spread of disease in urban centers

They allowed European soldiers to fight more effectively in battle

They ensured the survival of artifacts brought back from the New World

They aided navigation by providing a uniform measurement of longitude and latitude

Correct answer:

They allowed European explorers to traverse the globe

Explanation:

Caravels are sailing ships that were invented by the Portuguese in the late fifteenth century. They allowed European explorers to traverse the globe for the first time in human history. The Portuguese invention of the caravel is one of the many reasons why much of the earliest discoveries and voyages of exploration were made by Portuguese explorers like Vasco de Gama, Henry the Navigator, and Ferdinand Magellan.

Example Question #61 : Science And Technology

Who invented the printing press?

Possible Answers:

Amerigo Vespucci

Leonardo da Vinci

Johannes Gutenberg

Jan Hus

Niccolo Machiavelli

Correct answer:

Johannes Gutenberg

Explanation:

The Printing Press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg, in the Holy Roman Empire, in the fifteenth century. The invention of the printing press allowed ideas to be spread quickly around European society - it contributed to the momentum of the Protestant Reformation.

Example Question #61 : Science And Technology

Which of these best describes the difference between the impact of the printing press in European society and Asian society?

Possible Answers:

The impact of the printing press was greater in European society because more of the European population was literate.

None of these answers are accurate; the printing press had a similar impact on Asian and European societies.

The impact of the printing press was greater in Asian society because more of the Asian population was literate.

The impact of the printing press was greater in Asian society as a result of the smaller Chinese alphabet.

The impact of the printing press was greater in European society as a result of the smaller Latin alphabet.

Correct answer:

The impact of the printing press was greater in European society as a result of the smaller Latin alphabet.

Explanation:

The printing press had a greater impact in Europe than in Asia, primarily as a result of the Latin alphabet being smaller than the Chinese alphabet. The Latin alphabet, with its twenty-six characters, allowed mass production to be carried out far more efficiently.

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