AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 600 BCE to 600 CE

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

The Chinese philosophies of Legalism, Confucianism, and Taoism all emerged for the first time during __________.

Possible Answers:

the Xia Dynasty

the Eastern Zhou

the Yuan Dynasty

the Boxer Rebellion

the Western Zhou

Correct answer:

the Eastern Zhou

Explanation:

The Chinese philosophies of Legalism, Confucianism, and Taoism all emerged for the first time during the rule of the Eastern Zhou. This period of time also coincided with the Warring States Period (476 to 221 B.C.E.) and the Hundred Schools of Thought period.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies

The Byzantine Empire was formed from the __________ Empire, but modeled its culture on __________.

Possible Answers:

Hellenistic . . . Ancient Rome

Roman . . . Ancient Egypt

Roman . . . Ancient Greece

Ptolemaic . . . Ancient Rome

Hellenistic . . . Ancient Egypt

Correct answer:

Roman . . . Ancient Greece

Explanation:

The Byzantine Empire emerged from the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century. However, the Byzantines were fascinated with ancient Greek culture and viewed themselves as the inheritors and continuation of both the Roman Empire and the Hellenistic world. Much of Byzantine law, philosophy, science, and society was modeled on that of Ancient Greece.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

The Han Feizi is a central text in which of these philosophical traditions?

Possible Answers:

Buddhism

Legalism

Confucianism

Epicureanism

Taoism

Correct answer:

Legalism

Explanation:

The Han Feizi is the central text of legalism. It is a collection of essays written by Han Fei in the third century B.C.E. Most of the essays are concerned with government authority and the proper administration of a state.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies

Ancient Spartan society is primarily remembered for __________.

Possible Answers:

political development and democracy

contributions to philosophy

military conquest and combat aptitude

the writing of dramas and tragedies

contributions to mathematics

Correct answer:

military conquest and combat aptitude

Explanation:

Sparta is a prominent and noteworthy city-state in the history of Ancient Greece. Spartan society is primarily remembered for its emphasis on combat aptitude and its successful military campaigns. The Spartan army was instrumental in fending off Persian invasion during the Persian Wars. It is was also responsible for the destruction of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Epicureans were primarily concerned with __________.

Possible Answers:

proving the existence of the Gods

the existence of absolute truth

the pursuit of pleasure through modesty and knowledge

the pursuit of pleasure through hedonism and decadence

the denial of the existence of God and emphasis on the uniqueness of humanity

Correct answer:

the pursuit of pleasure through modesty and knowledge

Explanation:

Epicureanism is an ancient Greek system of philosophy that was first developed by Epicurus in the fourth century BCE. Epicureanism was centered around the pursuit of pleasure through modesty, knowledge, self-control, and study.

 

Example Question #12 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Stoicism, an ancient Greek philosophy, was often contrasted with __________.

Possible Answers:

Polytheism

Animism

Epicureanism

Cynicism

Platonism

Correct answer:

Epicureanism

Explanation:

Stoicism is an ancient Greek philosophy that was founded in the third century BCE. It maintains that the highest virtue in life is the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom. For this reason it is often contrasted against Epicureanism (with its emphasis on the pursuit of pleasure), but this contrast is somewhat unfair and is based on a modern interpretation of Epicureanism as a debauched hedonistic philosophy.

Example Question #15 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of these ancient Greeks was a teacher of Alexander the Great?

Possible Answers:

Aristotle

Solon

Pericles

Plato

Socrates

Correct answer:

Aristotle

Explanation:

Alexander the Great was raised in the wealthy Macedonian court of Philip II (his father). Philip II of Macedon was an extremely capable and ambitious ruler, he expanded the size and power of Macedonia and paved the way for the later conquests of Alexander the Great. He was also determined that his son Alexander should receive an exemplary education and so the famous philosopher and teacher Aristotle was summoned to the Macedonian court.

Example Question #12 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of these philosophies did not emerge during the Hundred Schools of Thought period of Chinese history?

Possible Answers:

Buddhism

Taoism

Legalism

All of these philosophies emerged during the Hundred Schools of Thought

Confucianism

Correct answer:

Buddhism

Explanation:

The Hundred Schools of Thought period of Chinese history occurred concurrently with the Warring States Period of Chinese history, from the fifth to the second century BCE. This was a time of great turbulence in China, but also of great innovation and philosophical development. The Chinese philosophies of legalism, Taoism, and Confucianism all arose in this time period. Buddhism, however, developed in India during the first millennium BCE.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies

What was the primary goal of legalism?

Possible Answers:

To ensure loyalty and obedience and prevent disorder

To encourage harmony between mankind and nature

To develop Chinese education and artistic endeavor

To strengthen the power of the central state

To provide answers to fundamental questions about the nature of the universe

Correct answer:

To strengthen the power of the central state

Explanation:

The primary goal of the Chinese philosophical tradition known as legalism was to strengthen the power and authority of the central state and encourage obedience to the government. Legalism was highly effective at supporting the growth of the power of Qin Shi Huangdi in the immediate aftermath of the Warring States Period, but became unpopular due to its disregard for Chinese traditional values.

Example Question #11 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of these groups was most likely to be critical of the rule of Qin Shi Huangdi?

Possible Answers:

Peasants and serfs

Bureaucrats and administrators

Advocates for legalism

Confucian scholars

Military leaders

Correct answer:

Confucian scholars

Explanation:

The Qin Dynasty rose to power during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. It became powerful as a result of a series of legalism reforms enacted in the fourth century BCE. But, the Qin’s strict adherence to legalism made them extremely unpopular once in power. All of these groups (with the obvious exception of advocates for legalism) might have been critical of the rule of Qin Shi Huangdi, but Confucian scholars definitely would have been. Confucianism and legalism were rival schools of thought and Confucian scholars would have been appalled by the Qin’s strict adherence to legalism.

 

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