AP World History : Ethnic Identities 1900 to Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Africa And Southwest Asia

To which of these Islamic religions or ethnic groups did Saddam Hussein belong?

Possible Answers:

Salafist

Shia

Sunni

Wahhabi

Kurd

Correct answer:

Sunni

Explanation:

Saddam Hussein was a Sunni Muslim in a country (Iraq) where the population distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims is roughly even. Sectarian differences between Sunni and Shia have been the cause of much conflict in the Middle East for hundreds of years and are especially relevant today.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

Nationalism, as represented in nineteenth century Europe, is best described as the belief ____________________.

Possible Answers:

in the superiority of people from Northern Europe over ethnicities and races

that citizens of a nation are best ruled by a monarch of their own choosing

in the power of democracy to create the fairest and most just form of government

that all people of the globe should be united under one form of government

that all people linked by culture, religion, or language should make up one political state

Correct answer:

that all people linked by culture, religion, or language should make up one political state

Explanation:

After the Napoleonic Wars at the start of the nineteenth century, many states were redrawn and reorganized. Additionally, the romantic and revolutionary movements of Europe in the early nineteenth century highlighted the shared histories of certain peoples. The desire for shared cultural, language, and religious heritages to be united in one state would both create modern Italy and Germany, while also spelling the destruction of multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nations like the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the end of World War I in 1918.

Example Question #7 : Ethnic Identities

The Wannsee Conference is notable __________.

Possible Answers:

for Nazi Germany’s betrayal of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

because the allied powers attempted to implement their policy of appeasement to prevent an outbreak of war

for the implementation of Hitler’s Final Solution

for first proposing the idea of the United Nations

because of the declarations of war made by Italy and Germany against the United States

Correct answer:

for the implementation of Hitler’s Final Solution

Explanation:

The Wannsee Conference took place near Berlin in 1942. It was a meeting of top Nazi officials to discuss the implementation of Hitler’s Final Solution. The Final Solution was Nazi Germany’s plan to eliminate the Jewish population of Nazi Europe during the Second World War. It culminated in the Holocaust and the execution of six million Jewish people living in Europe.

Example Question #4 : Ethnic Identities

F. W. De Klerk is notable for __________.

Possible Answers:

enacting the government policy of apartheid in South Africa

committing acts of terrorism in the name of ending segregation in South Africa

ending the government policy of apartheid in South Africa

imprisoning Nelson Mandela

educating Mohandas Gandhi on the benefits of nonviolent resistance

Correct answer:

ending the government policy of apartheid in South Africa

Explanation:

F. W. De Klerk was President of South Africa during the early 1990s and along with Nelson Mandela is credited with ending the government policy of apartheid (legal racial segregation) in South Africa.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

Which of these empires perpetrated the Armenian Genocide?

Possible Answers:

French

Italian

British

Russian

Ottoman

Correct answer:

Ottoman

Explanation:

The Armenian Genocide was perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire in the waning years of its existence. It involved the wholesale murder and forced deportation of the Armenian people living in territory in the Ottoman Empire. It took place during World War I and is responsible for the existence of a substantial Armenian diaspora living around the world.

Example Question #2 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

Which of these best describes the relationship between the African National Congress and the system of apartheid in South Africa during the twentieth century?

Possible Answers:

The African National Congress offered vocal support for apartheid

The African National Congress offered tacit support for apartheid

The African National Congress stayed out of the internal affairs of states, yet occasionally criticized the mentality behind the system of apartheid

The African National Congress stayed out of the internal affairs of states and so offered no opinion on apartheid

The African National Congress abhorred apartheid and campaigned passionately for its termination

Correct answer:

The African National Congress abhorred apartheid and campaigned passionately for its termination

Explanation:

The African National Congress is not a confederation of African states, rather it is a major political party in South Africa. The African National Congress is the party of Nelson Mandela and was the first party to be elected in the multi racial democratic elections of 1994, following the end of apartheid. The African National Congress abhorred apartheid and worked tirelessly and passionately for its end.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

The primary goal of apartheid was to _______________.

Possible Answers:

control the black population and prevent organized resistance

eliminate terrorism and close the nation’s borders

reduce educational and economic opportunities for the black population

restrict the freedom of movement of the black population and prevent access to higher education institutions

control the immigrant population and prevent organized resistance

Correct answer:

control the black population and prevent organized resistance

Explanation:

The primary goal of apartheid in South Africa was to control the country’s black population, prevent organized resistance, and ensure the legal superiority of the country’s white population. It was a formal policy of the ruling party of South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. It was not formally abolished until 1991 and not fully overturned until the elections of 1994, which ushered into power Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

How many Jews were killed during the Holocaust?

Possible Answers:

We cannot determine an estimate

Approximately six million

About ten million

Almost one million

Correct answer:

Approximately six million

Explanation:

The Holocaust occurred between 1941–45 and refers to the mass killing of minorities under the Nazi regime. This systematic slaughter impacted approximately 11 million people. 

Records estimate around 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis and their collaborators, though this number of deaths doesn't include those who were also targeted. This includes the disabled, homosexuals, and those deemed racially inferior such as the Slavs and Roma people.

Example Question #1 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

The Nuremberg Laws established __________.

Possible Answers:

Hitler’s control over the German police force

the Nazi policy of genocide against the Jewish population of Europe

the Nazi policy of Lebensraum

Hitler’s control over the German Reichstag

legal discrimination against Jewish people living in Nazi Germany

Correct answer:

legal discrimination against Jewish people living in Nazi Germany

Explanation:

The Nuremberg Laws were introduced to German society in 1935. They codified the inferior legal status of Jewish people living in Nazi Germany by making it illegal for Germans and Jews to marry and to have extramarital affairs and by declaring that Jews were not citizens of Hitler’s Reich. The Nuremberg Laws may be understood as precursor to the horrors of the Holocaust.

Example Question #6 : Ethnic Identities 1900 To Present

Who was elected in South Africa in the first free democratic election after the end of apartheid?

Possible Answers:

F.W. De Klerk

Thabo Mbeki

Jacob Zuma

Desmond Tutu

Nelson Mandela

Correct answer:

Nelson Mandela

Explanation:

The first multiracial democratic elections after the end of apartheid were held in South Africa in 1994. Nelson Mandela was elected President. The African National Congress, the party of Mandela, has ruled as the leading party in South African government ever since.

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