AP Psychology : Therapy

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Therapy

Aurelia’s therapist provides her with positive acceptance and accepts what Aurelia says with little criticism. The therapist is genuinely empathetic and emphasizes her human freedom. Her therapist probably subscribes to which of the following psychological perspectives?

Possible Answers:

Humanistic

Behavioral

Psychoanalytic

Neo-psychoanalytic

Correct answer:

Humanistic

Explanation:

Aurelia's therapist is most certainly a humanistic therapist. That is to say, her therapist is trained as person-centered (also known as client-centered) clinician following the theory of Carl Rogers. According to this approach, the three primary components of effective therapy are unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity. This approach, unlike the others, also stresses the role of human freedom (sometimes, this is referred to as free will).

 

Example Question #21 : Psychological Abnormalities

What was the most common result of psychosurgery? 

Possible Answers:

The patient would often be left in a vegetative state 

None of these 

The patient would feel better, and would usually be able to return to their usual activities

The treated person would die

The treated person would feel healthier for the most part with some minor side effects, including impaired motor function

Correct answer:

The patient would often be left in a vegetative state 

Explanation:

Psychosurgery most often involved a prefrontal lobotomy, which involved taking out a part of or the whole prefrontal cortex. People hypothesized that the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for our conscious thought, went awry in the minds of mentally ill people and that taking it out would cure their mental illness. The results, however, were often tragic and mentally ill people would be left in a vegetative state.

Example Question #22 : Therapy

A client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder is most likely to benefit from which of the following therapeutic modalities?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Interpersonal therapy

Dialectical behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Emotionally focused therapy

Correct answer:

Dialectical behavioral therapy

Explanation:

“Dialectical behavioral therapy” uses the pillars of mindfulness, emotional regulations, distress tolerance, and interpersonal skills to help individuals develop a more adaptive means of coping. It is particularly effective for clients with borderline personality disorder to assist them in managing their emotions and improving their interpersonal relationships.

Example Question #23 : Therapy

Which of the following is not considered to be one of Yalom's therapeutic factors?

Possible Answers:

Joining

Imitative behavior

Universality

Altruism

Instillation of hope

Correct answer:

Joining

Explanation:

Yalom's therapeutic factors include all of the choices except: joining. Yalom identified 11 factors that he believed influenced the process of change and recovery among therapy clients. Of these factors, “joining” was not included.

Example Question #24 : Therapy

Sam is a behavioral therapist. How might he treat a patient who has an extreme phobia of spiders?

Possible Answers:

Self-actualization 

Aversive conditioning 

Systematic desensitization 

Counterconditioning 

Correct answer:

Systematic desensitization 

Explanation:

Systematic desensitization is the best answer as it is a behavioral technique that is most often used to extinguish a phobia. Counterconditioning and aversive conditioning are also behavioral forms of therapy; however, they are not the most successful ways of extinguishing phobias. Self-actualization is a humanistic form of therapy. 

Example Question #25 : Therapy

Luke is terribly afraid of spiders. Ben thinks he should take Luke to a spider farm to "shock" the fear out of him. What method of therapy is influencing Ben's decision?

Possible Answers:

Flooding

Systematic desensitization

Rational emotive behavioral therapy

Insight therapy

Correct answer:

Flooding

Explanation:

Ben's technique is indicative of "flooding," which pushes the client to address their most frightening scenario first. This induces great anxiety; however, after nothing life threatening happens, the client will realize that their fear is irrational. This is the opposite of systematic desensitization, which starts with a stimulus which induces low anxiety and then builds onward to higher anxiety inducing stimuli. 

Example Question #26 : Therapy

What is the main difference between a psychiatrist and a counseling psychologist?

Possible Answers:

Counseling psychologists need a PhD. 

A psychiatrist is trained in Freudian methods. 

None of these

A psychiatrist can prescribe medication.

Counseling psychologists need a medical degree and a psychology degree. 

Correct answer:

A psychiatrist can prescribe medication.

Explanation:

"A psychiatrist can prescribe medication" is the correct answer. Psychiatrists can prescribe medication to individuals whom they believe have some sort of chemical imbalance or other psychological disorders. On the other hand, counseling psychologists only need a graduate degree in psychology. Last, "a psychiatrist is trained in Freudian methods" is false because psychoanalysts are trained in Freudian theory. 

Example Question #21 : Therapy

A 12-year-old patient comes to you with a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which of the following is not a proven treatment option for this disorder?

Possible Answers:

A stimulant drug (e.g. amphetamine)

A behavior modification program

Parent training

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy

Correct answer:

Electroconvulsive therapy

Explanation:

"Electroconvulsive therapy" is a procedure in which small electric currents are passed through the brain to trigger a seizure. This procedure is only used to treat very serious illnesses (e.g. severe depression, schizophrenia), not ADHD. All of the other answer choices demonstrate some efficacy in treating those with ADHD. 

Example Question #22 : Therapy

Which of the following is a commonly utilized component of humanistic therapy?

Possible Answers:

Defense mechanisms

The unconscious

Unconditional positive regard

Biofeedback

Maladaptive cognitions

Correct answer:

Unconditional positive regard

Explanation:

Humanistic psychology emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. "Unconditional positive regard" is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does. Humanistic therapists use unconditional positive regard to establish a strong connection with their clients. 

Example Question #29 : Therapy

Which therapeutic orientation utilizes positive reinforcement?

Possible Answers:

Psychoanalytic

Humanistic

Social-emotional

Etiological

Behavioral

Correct answer:

Behavioral

Explanation:

Positive reinforcement is a behavior-management strategy. The goal of positive reinforcement is to give something to someone to make a desirable behavior more likely to occur in the future. For example, a dog is more likely to obey his owner when he receives his favorite bone.

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