AP Psychology : Sense of Self

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #31 : Sense Of Self

Which of the following best describes what primarily guides our interpersonal selves?

Possible Answers:

Anarchy

Norms 

Careers

Laws 

Friendships

Correct answer:

Norms 

Explanation:

Our interpersonal self is composed of the rules of behavior—norms—that guide us to act in certain ways in particular social situations. For instance, the norms for how we behave will guide us to act one way as a student in school and another as a friend to someone. These norms constantly change but no matter what people are expected to adapt in order to get along in society. People who defy norms are referred to as "deviant," though this is not at all a negative term. Some social norms can be harmful (e.g. racist attitudes) and deviant actions against them can drive social change.

Example Question #1881 : Ap Psychology

To what can a strong sense of self be contributed? 

Possible Answers:

Extrinsic motivation 

Self-defense 

Delusions

Illusions

Intrinsic motivation

Correct answer:

Intrinsic motivation

Explanation:

One of the surprising but very positive outcomes of having a strong sense of self is potentially becoming more intrinsically motivated. For instance, a person who identifies themselves as a "good artist" will devote hours practicing their craft to reinforce this sense they have of themselves. Not only is it a source of pleasure, but it also reinforces who that person thinks they are, IE their sense of self. If a person doesn't think of themselves as a good artist, they most likely will need some reward to feel motivated to do art. This would be extrinsic motivation.

Example Question #1882 : Ap Psychology

What is an example of the categorical self?

Possible Answers:

A young teenager having a poor body image and developing low self-esteem

A young child defining themselves by their gender, i.e "I am a girl and he is a boy"

None of these

A young teenager joining a gang and participating in its customs

All of these

Correct answer:

A young child defining themselves by their gender, i.e "I am a girl and he is a boy"

Explanation:

Children gradually start to become of aware of themselves as an object in the world. Objects are experienced and evaluated (tall, short, tiny, huge) children become aware of how they, as objects in this world, are experienced and evaluated. These words are "categories", and as a child knows further what categories they belong to they are becoming more aware of their categorical self. These categories would be age, gender, height, and more. So the girl who says "I am a girl" has discovered this dimension of her categorical self.

Example Question #1883 : Ap Psychology

Do young people identify more with their social roles or personal traits?

Possible Answers:

Personal Traits

None of these

Neither, they identify more with their physical traits

Social Roles

Neither, they identify more with existential statements such as "i'm a spiritual being"

Correct answer:

Personal Traits

Explanation:

Young people have a strong tendency to identify more with their personality traits than with their proscribed social roles. That is, they'll identify themselves with various adjectives--"I'm smart, funny, attractive, impulsive, excitable." As people age, they think more about their social roles and what they perform for others. Roles are much more active, in the sense that person does things to perform them. For instance, a father provides resources for his children.

Example Question #1884 : Ap Psychology

What is an example of an incongruity between one's ideal self and actual self? 

Possible Answers:

Someone who continues to believe something simply because it's comfortable to them 

Someone who believes something strongly but is then confronted with a contradicting belief 

Someone who prides themselves on performing well in school but receives all failing grades on their report card 

None of these 

Someone who denies what is really happening to them 

Correct answer:

Someone who prides themselves on performing well in school but receives all failing grades on their report card 

Explanation:

According to Argyle's conception of self-actualization, people aspire to minimize the incongruity between who they are (their "actual self") and who they want to be (their "ideal self"). The more a person is different from their "ideal self," the self they aspire to be, the more incongruity one feels. This incongruity is usually experienced negatively. For instance, if a person who identifies as being a good student finds out they're failing their classes they will have the discrepancy between their ideal and actual self highlighted.

Example Question #1885 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following are characteristics of an inferiority complex?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Lack of self-worth

Self-doubt

Overcompensation

General uncertainty about one's place in the world

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Alfred Adler was the one to coin the term inferiority complex. The beginnings of an inferiority complex begin very young, when a child naturally feels inferior to the competent adults that surround it. Those who have successfully met challenges before them will grow up with high self-esteem and self-worth. Those who have routinely failed or not gotten the recognition for the achievements they did make will often grow up with low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. This means they are prone to devalue themselves and may seek to overcompensate through asocial behavior or trying to obtain the recognition they did not receive as a child. 

Example Question #1886 : Ap Psychology

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs in humanistic psychology, what is our highest and most difficult need to achieve?

Possible Answers:

Our need for safety 

Our need for self-esteem

Our need to self-actualize

Our need for love/belonging

Our physiological needs

Correct answer:

Our need to self-actualize

Explanation:

Our most base needs are for physiological well-being (food, nourishment) and safety (shelter). Beyond that, we have a need for love and esteem which we mostly satisfy from either work or our personal relationships with partners, friends, and family. The highest need we have has more to do with our purpose in life or our "highest selves"--our most moral, creative, responsible, and authentic selves. This is the need to self-actualize and it is the most difficult of all needs to attain.

Example Question #1881 : Ap Psychology

A person with an internal locus of control will most likely feel which of the following ways?

Possible Answers:

They are responsible for what happens to them

Their personal history is responsible for what happens to them

Their biology is responsible for what happens to them

The people they interact with are responsible for what happens to them

The world is responsible for what happens to them

Correct answer:

They are responsible for what happens to them

Explanation:

A person who has an "internal locus of control" believes, in a sense, that they are the masters of their own destiny. They are less likely to be passive as a result. People with an internal locus of control, for example, are perhaps more likely to work hard since they believe their own actions will determine consequences.

Example Question #1887 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following is a fundamental component of humanistic psychology?

Possible Answers:

Genetics

Free will

None of these

Repressed memories

Childhood trauma

Correct answer:

Free will

Explanation:

Humanistic psychology serves as a counterpoint to determinism, which views people's personality and behavior as largely determined by their past experiences. Humanistic psychology takes the emphasis off of what people cannot change and what they can. Instead of focusing on what is inhibiting the person, they focus on free will, the ability to exercise agency in one's life. A person may suffer severely from a trauma, but choose how to act in light of it.

Example Question #1888 : Ap Psychology

According to Mary K. Rothbart's theory of the three dimensions of temperament, what problems are children with lower levels of surgency/extraversion more likely to have?

Possible Answers:

They will be more prone to act out and be emotionally impulsive

They will be less motivated to accomplish high-stress level tasks

They will be more prone to introspection and creativity

None of these

They are more likely to have problems with internalizing too much, low self esteem, and shyness

Correct answer:

They are more likely to have problems with internalizing too much, low self esteem, and shyness

Explanation:

According to Mary K. Rothbart's three dimensions of temperament, children with lower levels of surgency/extraversion may develop internalizing problems. Internalizing problems are characterized by self-infliction and introversion, such as low self-esteem, social anxiety, and shyness. These problems can also give way to depression or other mood disorders. People with high surgency/extraversion will more likely be sensation-seeking, active, and happy. 

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors