AP Psychology : Sense of Self

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Sense Of Self

The self 'I’d like to be' refers to which of the following choices?

Possible Answers:

Social self

Ideal self

Self-image

Private self

Correct answer:

Ideal self

Explanation:

The concept of the ideal self is as straightforward as it seems: the version of yourself that you would most like to be is your ideal self. The concept of self-image captures how you view and conceive of yourself. Your social and private selves, respectively, describe how you act in front of others versus how you tend to behave when unobserved.

Example Question #22 : Sense Of Self

People tend to elicit feedback that confirms their own self-perceptions, both positive and negative according to which of the following theories?

Possible Answers:

Self-enhancement theory

Self-verification theory

Ideal self theory

Social-self theory

Correct answer:

Self-verification theory

Explanation:

Self-verification is a theory in social psychology that describes the phenomenon of accepting and integrating information that is consistent with one's current self-concept. This theory also posits that we actively avoid, ignore, or reject information that does not align with our current concept of self even if it is positive or complimentary. For example, an individual exhibiting the phenomenon of self-verification theory may disregard compliments that she is pretty because it does not verify or confirm her self-concept of being unattractive.

Example Question #22 : Sense Of Self

Contrasting yourself with the social standings (e.g., resources, accomplishments, material possessions) of another person that is less fortunate than you in order to feel better about yourself is best described as which of the following choices?

Possible Answers:

Self-enhancement theory

Upward social comparison

Social-self theory

Downward social comparison

Correct answer:

Downward social comparison

Explanation:

Downward social comparison describes the perspective of looking 'down' to those of less fortune or greater hardships in order to cheer up. Often we will hear, "Oh, yeah, you are going through a rough time, but it could be worse. I know a guy who...(enter an even worse case scenario)." Sometimes, these little anecdotes can help us gain perspective and feel better, whereas upward social comparisons tend to make us feel worse about ourselves. For example, comparing oneself to a successful movie actor or Nobel Prize winner may leave one feeling pretty inadequate.

Example Question #24 : Sense Of Self

People with high self esteem are prone to __________.

Possible Answers:

be control freaks

 emotional instability 

have narcissistic feelings of grandiosity 

have a pessimistic view on life 

overestimating their good qualities

Correct answer:

overestimating their good qualities

Explanation:

Although there are many advantages to having high self-esteem and is arguably the key to success and overall contentment in life, there are some potential pitfalls. One of which is a sort of "rose-tinted glasses" effect on your beliefs about your good qualities and capabilities. This is not narcissistic in nature, where narcissism is actually deeply rooted in low self-worth.

These beliefs stem in the belief that one is a capable human being worthy in many aspects, though sometimes on an "objective scale" these beliefs may not be true. For instance, a person who gets bad grades but high self-esteem may still believe they are smart and this leads them to work harder and get better grades. 

Example Question #23 : Sense Of Self

The agent self is in charge of ____________.

Possible Answers:

All of these answers are accurate.

exercising control

decision making 

deciding how you want to behave

None of these answers is accurate.

Correct answer:

All of these answers are accurate.

Explanation:

Our interpersonal self is the self that is composed of norms for how we should behave in certain social scenarios. For instance, how we behave as a daughter is different for how we behave as a friend. These behaviors that we exercise in certain social situations are indications of our "interpersonal selves".

Example Question #24 : Sense Of Self

What is the process of introspection?

Possible Answers:

Thinking about past memories and future hopes and dreams 

Writing information about one's day in a diary 

Reflection and information-gathering about oneself through mental functions and emotions

None of these answers is accurate

Socializing with friends and developing your confidence and relationships 

Correct answer:

Reflection and information-gathering about oneself through mental functions and emotions

Explanation:

The process of introspection is an essential process is the development of one's sense of self. Usually, introspection involves reasoning about why we do things, why we make certain decisions, and general self-questioning. Introspection is not always accurate, however, and we may have a more accurate view of ourselves from other people.

Example Question #25 : Sense Of Self

Social psychology sees the sense of self as being partially formed from __________.

Possible Answers:

traumatic memories

None of these

genetics

our spiritual development 

our interactions with others 

Correct answer:

our interactions with others 

Explanation:

Social psychology emphasizes how people are affected by social interaction on both micro and macro scales. These interactions have a deep impact on how we as people feel about ourselves. What happens in our interactions with others will become apart of how we view ourselves. For instance, if a lot of people do not view you as being very smart and convey this in their interactions, you may tend to think of yourself as not being smart.

Example Question #26 : Sense Of Self

Which of the following best describes the role that the self plays in accordance to the current views of the psychology of self?

Possible Answers:

 Social identity

Affect

All of these

Cognition

Human motivation

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Current views in the psychology of self claim that the self plays an integral role in social identity, cognition, affect, and human motivation. That is, one's own perceptions and definitions of who they are will influence us in a variety of important ways. How we define ourselves can influence where we position ourselves socially, how we reason about the world and our environment, our feelings, and what we are motivated to do in life. If we perceive ourselves to be intelligent, for instance, we may identify with a more intelligent group of people, and this would be our social identity.

Example Question #27 : Sense Of Self

John Locke views the self as stemming from which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Traumatic memories

Genetics

Episodic memory

Semantic memory

Stress

Correct answer:

Episodic memory

Explanation:

As opposed to other theories, which define the sense of self as belonging to our perceptions or otherwise, John Locke viewed the self as heavily bound with our episodic memories. This is because our episodic memories help us create a narrative about our lives and ourselves and thus creates a sense of continuity that, for instance, the semantic memory would not. 

Example Question #28 : Sense Of Self

What is key in the development of our interpersonal selves?

Possible Answers:

Self esteem

Anarchy

Norms

Law

Genetics

Correct answer:

Norms

Explanation:

Our interpersonal self is composed of the rules of behavior, or "norms," that guide us to act in certain ways in particular social situations. For instance, the norms for how we behave will guide us to act one way as a student in school and another as a friend to someone. These norms constantly change but no matter what it is expected to adapt in order to get along in society. People who defy norms are referred to as "deviant," though this is not at all a negative term. Some social norms can be harmful, such as racist attitudes, and acted deviant towards them can drive social change.

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