AP Psychology : Psychological Abnormalities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Theories And Approaches

Which of the following is not one of the treatment orientations that can inform the way psychological disorders can be treated?

Possible Answers:

Cognitive therapy

Humanistic therapy

Behavioral therapy

Group therapy

Psychoanalytic therapy

Correct answer:

Group therapy

Explanation:

Group therapy, like individual therapy, refers to the format of treatment, rather than a treatment orientation. A behavioral orientation might cause a therapist to focus on how the patient should change their behavior, while a cognitive orientation might cause a therapist to focus on their patient's thoughts. A therapist with a psychoanalytic orientation is probably influenced by the work of Freud and interested in the unconscious. One with a humanistic orientation would be more influenced by Carl Rogers and focus on patients achieving self-actualization.

Example Question #22 : Theories And Approaches

Which of the following is not a characteristic of humanistic psychology?

Possible Answers:

Use of empathy and unconditional positive regard in psychotherapy

Belief that humans have free will

Little emphasis on diagnosis and pathology

The goal of therapy is to bring the unconscious into the conscious

Emphasis on personal growth

Correct answer:

The goal of therapy is to bring the unconscious into the conscious

Explanation:

Humanistic psychology arose during the 20th century to address the limitations of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It is commonly regarded as the third wave of psychology. Influential humanistic theorists include Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. It assumes that people are good, unique, and have an innate desire for personal growth. Carl Rogers's person-centered therapy emphasizes empathy and unconditional positive regard when working with clients. One criticism of humanistic psychology is that it is difficult to study because it cannot be objectively measured. Bringing the unconscious into the conscious is a goal of psychoanalysis, not humanistic psychology.

Example Question #21 : Theories And Approaches

Which of the following theorists and theories are incorrectly matched?

Possible Answers:

Jung: Gestalt Therapy

Ellis: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Skinner: Behaviorism

Rogers: Client Centered Therapy

Freud: Psychoanalysis

Correct answer:

Jung: Gestalt Therapy

Explanation:

“Jung and Gestalt Therapy” is the only choice that contains an incorrectly matched pair of theorist and theory. Carl Jung founded analytical psychology, which is a split off from Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. Analytical psychology focuses on archetypes, the collective unconscious, and individuation. Fritz Perls developed Gestalt therapy, which focuses on personal responsibility, the present moment, and increasing self-awareness

Example Question #21 : Theories And Approaches

Which of the following terms describes the primary aim of humanistic therapy?

Possible Answers:

Defense mechanism

Maladaptive cognitions

Optimism

Unconscious release

Self-actualization

Correct answer:

Self-actualization

Explanation:

The primary aim of humanistic therapy is to help the client develop a stronger and healthier sense of self, also known as "self-actualization."

Example Question #1 : Other Treatment Principles

What are two well-known and generally successful ways to treat acute and post-traumatic stress disorders?

Possible Answers:

Group therapy and re-exposure to trauma

Electroconvulsive therapy and hypnosis

Group therapy and behavioral-exposure treatments

Hypnosis and water-treatment therapy

Re-exposure to trauma and deep breathing techniques

Correct answer:

Group therapy and behavioral-exposure treatments

Explanation:

Many approaches and treatments have found to be successful in reducing PTSD. Some of the most successful include eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, participation in rap or therapy groups, psychological debriefing, insight therapy, and behavioral exposure techniques.

Example Question #1 : Other Treatment Principles

Which of the following is not a way that phobias are treated?

Possible Answers:

Relaxation training

Systematic desensitization

Modeling by therapists

Avoidance therapy

Flooding

Correct answer:

Avoidance therapy

Explanation:

Exposure treatments are some of the most effective treatments for phobias. Exposure treatments include systematic desensitization, flooding, relaxation training, and participant modeling. Avoidance is not a viable means of overcoming a phobia.

Example Question #1 : Other Treatment Principles

Which of the following is not a way that therapists can help individuals with dissociative identity disorder?

Possible Answers:

Try to help the patient merge their subpersonalities into a single, integrated identity

Help the client recover their lost memories and missing pieces of their past

Try to get the subpersonalities to all obtain equal power and "face time" in the life of the person

Help the individual recognize the disorder and educate the patient on the full nature of their disorder

All of these answers are ways therapists help people with dissociative identity disorder

Correct answer:

Try to get the subpersonalities to all obtain equal power and "face time" in the life of the person

Explanation:

Dissociative identity disorder is highly disruptive due to the overarching presence of subpersonalities that are controlling different aspects of a person's life. The goal in therapy is to fuse all the personalities, not help them all obtain equal power and "face time" in the life of a person.

Example Question #81 : Psychological Abnormalities

Which treatment modality advocates unconditional positive regard for the client?

Possible Answers:

Bio-behavioral

Humanistic

Developmental

Psychodynamic

Psychoanalytic

Correct answer:

Humanistic

Explanation:

Humanistic psychology, pioneered by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, is a psychological perspective that advocates the study of the whole person. Unconditional positive regard occurs when therapists support and accept the client wholeheartedly, regardless of the client's expressed views and behaviors.

Example Question #83 : Treatments

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), caused by an increase in melatonin production by the pineal gland, can be treated using which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Electroconvulsive therapy

Behavorial therapy

Psychotherapy

Phototherapy

Cognitive therapy

Correct answer:

Phototherapy

Explanation:

Seasonal affective disorder is a mood disorder associated with episodes of depression during the winter months, and appears to be related to a lack of sunshine causing increased melatonin production by the pineal gland. It can be helped by phototherapy with bright white fluorescent lights.

Behavorial therapy is used to change maladaptive behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. Cognitive therapy is used to remove negative thoughts that harm a person's emotional health. Psychotherapy is any means of treating psychiatric disorders by mental rather than pharmacological means. Electroconvulsive therapy is the use of electric shock to produce convulsions and treat drug-resistant psychiatric disorders. 

Example Question #2 : Other Treatment Principles

Which of the following is not an aspect of psychodynamic/psychoanalytic therapy?

Possible Answers:

Free association

Resistance 

Dream analysis

Unconditional positive regard

Transference

Correct answer:

Unconditional positive regard

Explanation:

Free association, dream analysis, resistance, and transference are all aspects of psychodynamic/psychoanalytic therapy. Free association is when a patient talks in a relaxed and aimless way about anything that comes to mind so the therapist can try to determine any thoughts that might be repressed. Dream analysis is when the content of a patient's dreams is analyzed in order to understand the patient's unconscious, especially their wishes. Resistance is when a patient blocks memories from the conscious mind and/or becomes resistant to therapy when the therapist is getting near the heart of why the patient is in therapy. Transference is when the patient begins to react to the therapist in ways influenced by their childhood desires. 

Unconditional positive regard is an aspect of person-centered humanistic therapy. 

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