AP Psychology : Psychological Abnormalities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #51 : Treatments

Which of the following best defines trephination?

Possible Answers:

A modern treatment for psychological disorders where the prefrontal lobe is severed. 

A type of counseling where individuals are asked about their dreams.

An early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved removing the spleen from the body. 

A modern form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved drilling holes in the skull. 

An early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved drilling holes in the skull. 

Correct answer:

An early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved drilling holes in the skull. 

Explanation:

Trephination is "an early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved drilling holes in the skull." The key to this answer is realizing that trephination is an early form of treatment. From there you can narrow it down to two different answers (i.e. "an early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved drilling holes in the skull" and "an early form of treatment for psychological disorders which involved removing the spleen from the body). Since psychological disorders are associated with the mind or the brain, you can deduce that this treatment will involve the head (or in this case the skull). "A type of counseling where individuals are asked about their dreams" is indicative of dream analysis, while "a modern treatment for psychological disorders where the prefrontal lobe is severed" is a lobotomy and is rarely performed today. 

Example Question #52 : Treatments

Which of the following disorders is not typically treated with psychotropic medication?

Possible Answers:

Binge eating disorder

Depression

Bipolar disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder

Schizophrenia

Correct answer:

Binge eating disorder

Explanation:

"Binge eating disorder" (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by the consumption of large quantities of food (often very quickly and to the point of nausea and/or vomiting), along with experiencing shame and guilt afterwards. Typically, treatment of BED involves psychotherapy along with nutritional care. The other answer choices are usually treated with a psychotropic medication (e.g. antidepressants) along with psychotherapy.

Example Question #51 : Psychological Abnormalities

A famous psychopharmacological researcher just created a new antipsychotic medication. Which of the following disorders would the medication work best to treat?

Possible Answers:

Depression

Anorexia nervosa

Autism

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Schizophrenia

Correct answer:

Schizophrenia

Explanation:

Antipsychotic medications are typically used to treat those with "schizophrenia." Specifically, this class of medications help to manage psychotic episodes, including the presence of delusions and hallucinations. 

Example Question #21 : Medications

A patient comes into your office presenting symptoms that are indicative of depression. Which of the following would not be a proper psychopharmacological treatment option?

Possible Answers:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs)

Atypical antipsychotics

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Correct answer:

Atypical antipsychotics

Explanation:

"Atypical antipsychotics" are not typically utilized in treating depression; however, they can be effective for treating individuals with schizophrenia. All of the other answer choices are commonly prescribed antidepressants used to treat depressive symptomologies. 

Example Question #52 : Psychological Abnormalities

A famous psychopharmacological researcher creates a new stimulant medication. Which of the following disorders would this medication treat the best?

Possible Answers:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Antisocial personality disorder

Autism

Generalized anxiety disorder

Asperger's disorder

Correct answer:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Explanation:

Stimulants are commonly prescribed to treat ADHD symptomology. Stimulants may be short-acting or long-acting; many individuals with ADHD require one stimulant from each category to get through a school and/or work day.

Example Question #54 : Treatments

Which of the following is a commonly prescribed pharmacological treatment for Parkinson's disease?

Possible Answers:

Fluoxetine

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Prednisone

Cefprovil

Lithium

Correct answer:

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Explanation:

"Levodopa," commonly referred to as L-Dopa, is used to increase dopamine concentrations in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine resistant dystonia.

Example Question #55 : Treatments

Which of the following is a commonly prescribed pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder?

Possible Answers:

Memantine

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Cefprovil

Lithium

Prednisone

Correct answer:

Lithium

Explanation:

"Lithium" has been shown to be highly successful in treating the manic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder. It functions as an effective mood stabilizer for people with this disorder; furthermore, it has limited side effects in comparison to other common psychopharmacological treatments.

Example Question #52 : Treatments

Electroconvulsive therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Dissociative amnesia

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Somatic symptom disorder

Major depressive disorder

Correct answer:

Major depressive disorder

Explanation:

While scientists are still unsure why it works, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to relieve symptoms in some people with depression. It involves sedating the patient and applying electrical shocks to the brain via electrodes that induce a brief seizure. Current beliefs suggest that this series of electrical shocks changes or somehow “resets” brain chemistry and firing patterns, which in turn lead to the alleviation of symptoms seen in patients. The negative symptoms (e.g. memory loss during treatment, headache, muscle pain, etc.) are often quite uncomfortable; therefore, ECT is only used in extreme cases where other treatments have failed. While ECT may seem primitive or even unethical, its proven results mean it is still in use today.

Example Question #52 : Treatments

Which of the following is a commonly prescribed pharmacological treatment for depression?

Possible Answers:

Antipsychotics

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Cefprozil

Analgesics

Lithium

Correct answer:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Explanation:

SSRIs are a class of antidepressant drugs that help to treat major depressive disorder and various anxiety disorders. At a cellular level, SSRIs prevent the reuptake of serotonin, which allows the body to maintain a higher level of serotonin.

Example Question #56 : Treatments

An individual suffering from major depression is started on an SSRI. This medication works by __________________.

Possible Answers:

increasing serotonin release from the presynaptic neuron

increasing serotonin degradation within the synaptic cleft

blocking re-uptake of serotonin at the synaptic cleft

decreasing serotonin production within the post synaptic neuron

blocking re-uptake of serotonin within the pre-optic nucleus of the hypothalamus

Correct answer:

blocking re-uptake of serotonin at the synaptic cleft

Explanation:

The SSRIs are a class of drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. They work by blocking the re-uptake of serotonin by the pre-synaptic neuron in the synaptic cleft. By blocking re-uptake, they allow for serotonin to stay in the synaptic cleft for a longer period of time.

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