AP Psychology : Other Treatment Principles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #11 : Other Treatment Principles

What's the difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist?

Possible Answers:

A psychiatrist prescribes medication whereas a clinical psychologist performs therapy

A clinical psychologist has to get a graduate degree whereas a psychiatrist does not

A psychiatrist has to get a graduate degree whereas a clinical psychologist does not

A clinical psychologist prescribes medication whereas a psychiatrist performs therapy

There is no difference

Correct answer:

A psychiatrist prescribes medication whereas a clinical psychologist performs therapy

Explanation:

The difference between a psychiatrist and clinical psychologist is mostly in their functions-- psychiatrists give referrals for medications and clinical psychologists act as therapists. Both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists have to go to graduate school for multiple years. Keep in mind that although their functions differ, they often work together to help a patient successfully go through treatment. 

Example Question #12 : Other Treatment Principles

Which type of treatment is considered to be the most effective for most disorders?

Possible Answers:

Medication alone

Therapy alone

Starting with medication alone and then transitioning to therapy alone

Starting with therapy alone and then transitioning to medication alone

Therapy in conjunction with medication

Correct answer:

Therapy in conjunction with medication

Explanation:

Research has shown that combination treatment, i.e. taking medication and doing therapy at the same time, is the most effective type of treatment and therefore leads to faster, better recovery. Although some people start off with medication and move to therapy or vice versa, that has not shown to increase the effectiveness of treatment. 

Example Question #13 : Other Treatment Principles

Which of the following is true about psychosurgery?

Possible Answers:

It is the first line of defense in treatment 

Its uses are unanimously accepted by doctors today

It is a comparatively non-intrusive method of treatment

It has few side effects compared to other types of treatment

Prefrontal lobotomies are a famous example of psychosurgery

Correct answer:

Prefrontal lobotomies are a famous example of psychosurgery

Explanation:

Psychosurgery is surgery performed on the brain and it is one of the last resorts in treatment because it is costly, risky, intrusive, and still debated by scientists today. Prefrontal lobotomies were one of the first methods of psychosurgery and ended up leading to grave side effects for many of the people who underwent it. 

Example Question #11 : Other Treatment Principles

Which of the following terms is best defined as the removal or damage of brain tissue during a surgical procedure?

Possible Answers:

Axon

Ablation

Accommodation

Incision 

Amygdala 

Correct answer:

Ablation

Explanation:

During surgical procedures, the brain tissue can be damaged or removed completely. This is known as an ablation.

Example Question #14 : Other Treatment Principles

Which answer is not a true statement about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?

Possible Answers:

Causes muscle convulsions

Electrical current runs through the brain

Used for anyone with depression

Overused in the 1940s/1950s

One of the last lines of treatment when other treatments do not work

Correct answer:

Used for anyone with depression

Explanation:

ECT is a last resort treatment for individuals with extremely severe or suicidal depression. The harsh side-effects, past abuses of the procedure, and the general neurological risks of the procedure make it a controversial and rarely used procedure. The practice is still in use in some very limited situations, but it is NOT used for "anyone with depression."

Example Question #15 : Other Treatment Principles

What is the proper definition for psychosurgery?

Possible Answers:

Surgical intervention used to treat psychological disorders

None of these

Surgery designed for a person's aesthetic appearance to raise their self esteem. 

Talking therapy designed to alter one's behavior. 

Surgery in the intestinal system to alter the way a person feels about their body. 

Correct answer:

Surgical intervention used to treat psychological disorders

Explanation:

"Psychosurgery" is largely out of use today, though it was popular closer to the beginning and middle of the 20th century. "Psychosurgery" is surgical intervention, usually performed on the brain, in order to treat psychological ailments. The most famous form of psychosurgery is the lobotomy, and it is a form of treatment where a portion of the brain is lesioned or destroyed to alter a person's behavior.

Example Question #101 : Treatments

Which of the following is true regarding lobotomies?

Possible Answers:

This psychosurgery involves severing connections in the frontal lobe.

They are highly effective in treating catatonic symptoms.

They were developed and popularized by G. Stanley Hall in the 1850s. 

This psychosurgery involves creating new neuronal connections in the amygdala to foster appropriate emotional expression.

They are commonly utilized in practice today.

Correct answer:

This psychosurgery involves severing connections in the frontal lobe.

Explanation:

A lobotomy is a psychosurgical procedure that involves cutting away most of an individual's connections to their prefrontal cortex. This technique was popularized in the 1940s and 1950s to treat highly violent and dangerous patients; however, this surgery rendered them catatonic and unable to express emotion. It is rarely used in practice today. 

Example Question #102 : Treatments

Suzie, a first year medical student, is squeamish at the sight of blood. After months of practice in a medical facility, her reaction to blood begins to lessen. This is an example of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Conditioned response

Aversion

Covert sensitization

Trial-and-error learning

Desensitization 

Correct answer:

Desensitization 

Explanation:

In this instance, Suzie became more used to the sight of blood after periods of exposure. In this way, because of this gradual exposure, she was desensitized to the sight of blood. 

Example Question #101 : Treatments

Which psychological disorder has the highest suicide rate?

Possible Answers:

Dementia

Schizophrenia

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Histrionic personality disorder

Bipolar disorder

Correct answer:

Bipolar disorder

Explanation:

Of all the psychological disorders, bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide at 15-20%. Is is directly followed by schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder, both around 10-15%. While the factors leading to suicide vary widely, these rates demonstrate the great difficulties that come with the inherent symptoms of disorder.

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