AP Psychology : Studying Developmental Psychology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #81 : Developmental Psychology

Which parenting style is characterized by excessive rules and strict actions?

Possible Answers:

Secure

Authoritative

Permissive

Uninvolved

Authoritarian

Correct answer:

Authoritarian

Explanation:

Authoritarian parenting is typically depicted as the parent being controlling and power-assertive over their child. The authoritarian parent expects a lot of their child, and may reject him/her if he/she does not meet their high expectations.

Example Question #81 : Studying Developmental Psychology

Which researcher studied attachment patterns in monkeys?

Possible Answers:

James Maas

Carl Jung

Mary Ainsworth

Harry Harlow

Ivan Pavlov

Correct answer:

Harry Harlow

Explanation:

Harry Harlow was an American psychologist who is best known for his maternal separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments with primates. His experiments would not have been allowed today because they would be considered animal cruelty by the IRB research approval panel.

Example Question #1 : Other Developmental Factors

What unfavorable outcome can arise around middle age, according to Erik Erickson's stages of development?

Possible Answers:

Despair, where one is miserable about the outcome of their life and fears death

None of these

Self-absorption, where one is only motivated to help themselves

Generativity, where one is largely concerned with the society and people around them

Confusion, where one is constantly uncertain about their identity

Correct answer:

Self-absorption, where one is only motivated to help themselves

Explanation:

If one is not developing in a healthy and positive manner throughout life, it is possible to become completely self-possessed during middle age. Instead of expressing concern about the people and society around them and their relationship with others, the middle-aged person is completely selfish and out to satisfy their own desires without much consideration for anyone else.

Example Question #1 : Other Developmental Factors

Who set the preliminary foundations for Kohlberg's stages of moral development?

Possible Answers:

Jean Piaget

Erik Erickson

Carl Jung

Abraham Maslow

Sigmund Freud

Correct answer:

Jean Piaget

Explanation:

Jean Piaget set the intellectual foundations for Kohlberg's six stages of moral development. The major difference is that Piaget elucidates the process of moral reasoning in children, rather than breaking down moral development into evolutionary stages. Piaget said that children approach problems in two different ways: assimilation and accomodation. In assimilation, children easily internalize the rules of the outside world, including the ethical ones. In accomodation, children may have to change these internalized ideas or other pre-existing notions to fit what they see in the world. Kohlberg expanded on this and categorized ideas based on the stages of a person's life which, according to him, define the moral dilemnas a person faces.

Example Question #2 : Other Developmental Factors

The presence of testosterone in the first weeks of pregnancy prevents female organs from developing in the embryo. If testosterone is not received, female organs will develop even if a Y chromosome is present. What receptor is necessary for testosterone to be received in the body?

Possible Answers:

Beta cells

5-alpha reductase

Estrogen

Testosterase 

Dendrites

Correct answer:

5-alpha reductase

Explanation:

In the presence of a Y chromosome, testosterone prevents the default female organs from developing in the embryo. However, to prevent female organs from developing and to initiate development of male reproductive organs, testosterone must be received by 5-alpha reductase receptors. If testosterone is present, but there are no receptors, female organs will continue to develop in spite of the Y chromosome. This is called 5-alpha reductase deficiency. Although genetically male, the baby has the appearance of a female. In many cases however, a surge of testosterone during puberty leads to development of male reproductive organs.

Example Question #82 : Studying Developmental Psychology

According to Piaget, true object permanence develops during which stage?

Possible Answers:

Pre-operational

Concrete operational

Formal operational 

Sensorimotor 

Mature operational 

Correct answer:

Sensorimotor 

Explanation:

The Sensorimotor stage ranges from zero to two years of age. The phrase “out of sight, out of mind” describes a child before developing true object permanence. True object permanence is the ability of a child to know that even though an object is not visible to them, it still exists (imagine a game of peek-a-boo). In this stage, Piaget also proposed instinctual reflexes, intentional-ism, and coordination of speaking, hearing, and acting.  

Example Question #2 : Other Developmental Factors

An example of a secondary sex characteristic is __________.

Possible Answers:

Facial hair

Sex chromosomes

Ovaries

Testes

Genitals

Correct answer:

Facial hair

Explanation:

Secondary sex characteristics are traits that develop during puberty, and include facial hair, enlarged breasts, pubic hair, and deeper voices. Primary sex characteristics are innate and include sex organs (the ovaries in women and testes in men) and genitalia. 

Example Question #83 : Studying Developmental Psychology

Which of the following techniques is the most commonly used method in the study of developmental psychology?

Possible Answers:

Field research

Latitudinal research

Longitudinal research

Animal testing

Lab research

Correct answer:

Longitudinal research

Explanation:

Longitudinal research is a popular method of conducting developmental psychology studies. This method takes one group of people and tracks the effect of the developmental factor being studied on them over time. This is a time-consuming and often tricky method of research and many researchers may turn to cross-sectional research instead.

Example Question #84 : Studying Developmental Psychology

Which of the following is an illustrative example of a secure attachment in a parent-child relationship?

Possible Answers:

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby explores the novel place.

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby explores the novel place and resists comfort from their parents when they return. 

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby cries, but goes to the parents when they return. 

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby cries and ignores the parents when they return. 

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby throws a severe tantrum, but ignores the parents when they return. 

Correct answer:

Parents leave their baby in an unfamiliar place. The baby cries, but goes to the parents when they return. 

Explanation:

Mary Ainsworth's study of attachment styles in parent-child relationships showed that babies with secure attachments to their parents would be distressed when their parents left the room and look for their comfort upon return. Ainsworth held that the baby had unconsciously recognized and accepted their dependence on their caregivers for their needs. The other attachment styles identified in the study were avoidant and anxious/ambivalent, where the babies may not have felt they could depend on their caregivers to fulfill their needs.

Example Question #81 : Developmental Psychology

Which of the following is an example of a permissive parenting style?

Possible Answers:

Inconsistent rules and enforcement of consequences

Reasonable and consistent rules and enforcement of consequences

Extremely demanding rules and ad-hoc enforcement of consequences

None of these

Strictly enforced standards with no explanation

Correct answer:

Inconsistent rules and enforcement of consequences

Explanation:

Permissive parenting is the most "relaxed" of the parenting styles. It's defined by a lack of consistency in rules and consequences that are usually not enforced, or are enforced in an inconsistent manner. Permissive parenting is on the opposite end of the spectrum from Authoritarian parenting, which features extremely strict rules with strong enforcement of punishment, and little explanation. Most parenting styles fall somewhere between these two polarized points on the spectrum of parenting style.

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