AP Psychology : Studying Developmental Psychology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Developmental Psychology

Mary Ainsworth developed the "Strange Situation" experiment to examine _________

Possible Answers:

Mothers' attachment to their infants

Infants' sensory perception

Mothers' parenting styles

Infants' linguistic capabilities

Infants' attachment to their mothers

Correct answer:

Infants' attachment to their mothers

Explanation:

The "Strange Situation" experiment began by placing a mother alone in a room with her child. After some time, a stranger enters the room, and the mother leaves the room shortly after the stranger's entrance. A short time later, the mother returns and the stranger leaves. Following this, the mother again leaves the room and returns after a brief period in which the child is alone in the room.

The purpose of this study was to examine the infant's behavior when "abandoned" by his/her mother, and his/her reaction when the mother returned to the room. The children were then classified into three kinds of attachment to their mothers.

Example Question #351 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

In his theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget used the term "schemata" to refer to which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The rare phenomena of a child in the preoperational stage possessing concrete logical capability

Cognitive maps children form during the concrete operational stage

The inability to form solid logical reasoning in early childhood

Mental rules or frameworks used to organize and interpret the surrounding world

A full understanding of the world attained only in the final stage of development

Correct answer:

Mental rules or frameworks used to organize and interpret the surrounding world

Explanation:

Jean Piaget's term schemata refers to cognitive rules/frameworks/blueprints ("schematics") with which humans interpret the world around them. As humans develop through childhood, their schemata are challenged and change to assimilate new knowledge and logic.

Example Question #23 : Developmental Psychology

As an alternative to Jean Piaget's theory of 4 stages of cognitive development, the Information-Processing Theory proposes that __________

Possible Answers:

there are six distinct stages of cognitive development rather than only four

None of these answers

higher cognitive processes such as logical thinking and abstract reasoning are instinctual rather learned

human mental capacities to memorize, interpret, and perceive develop gradually rather than in stages

it is impossible to have a universal theory of cognitive development because of the subjective nature of how humans process information

Correct answer:

human mental capacities to memorize, interpret, and perceive develop gradually rather than in stages

Explanation:

In contrast to Jean Piaget's 4 stages, the Information-Processing Model suggests continuous, gradual development, the rate of which depends on the individual and the information presented to them. This model also tends to draw illustrative examples of human cognition and information processing from the way computers process information.

Example Question #361 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is not one of Erik Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development?

Possible Answers:

Nature vs. Nurture

Industry vs. Inferiority

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Trust vs. Mistrust

Correct answer:

Nature vs. Nurture

Explanation:

Nature vs. nurture refers to the debate over which of the two aspects has greater influence on human behavior. Erik Erikson developed a psychosocial theory which proposed 8 stages throughout life: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and lastly integrity vs. despair.

Example Question #21 : Studying Developmental Psychology

Who did NOT come up with a theory of development that involved stages?

Possible Answers:

Skinner

Piaget

Erik Erikson

Kohlberg

Freud

Correct answer:

Skinner

Explanation:

Freud, Erik Erikson, Piaget, and Kohlberg all developed theories of development that involved stages, whereas Skinner focused on classical conditioning. 

Freud came up with the psychosexual stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Erik Erikson came up with eight stages of social development (ex: trust vs. mistrust). Piaget came up with the stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Kohlberg came up with the stages of moral development: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. 

Example Question #362 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

According to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial development poses the developmental task of which of the following choices?

Possible Answers:

Industry vs. inferiority

Autonomy vs. shame

Trust vs. mistrust

Initiative vs. guilt

Correct answer:

Autonomy vs. shame

Explanation:

Resolving the conflict of autonomy vs. shame is the developmental task of the second stage of Erik Erikson's 8-stage model of psychosocial development. Typically, it is during this stage that a developing child learns to toilet train and to get dressed. Erikson described this stage as the time in which a sense of personal control over physical tasks was developed. If conquered successfully, the fruits of this stage are feelings of autonomy. The other answers are all stages in Erikson's model, but not his second stage.

Example Question #363 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

According to Maslow, self-actualization is best described as which of the following choices?

Possible Answers:

Rarely achieved until young adulthood

Usually attained in Western but not Eastern societies

More commonly achieved among children than adults

A lifelong process that is rarely fully completed

Correct answer:

A lifelong process that is rarely fully completed

Explanation:

In Maslow's proposed a hierarchy of needs, the need to become self-actualized was at the pinnacle of the hierarchy. Self-actualization can be defined as the state in which a person has reached his personal highest level of psychological health and ability. Another way of stating this is reaching one's full growth potential.  Maslow made new distinctions between Eastern and Western cultures, but did imply that those of the more elite classes would be more likely to attain this status but only fleetingly.

Example Question #22 : Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologists are observing toddlers and their primary care-givers in a lab. One toddler does not explore the lab, is very distressed when the parent leaves the room, and is not easily comforted when the parent returns. These behaviors indicate a(n) ___________ attachment.

Possible Answers:

avoidant

secure

disorganized

ambivalent

Correct answer:

ambivalent

Explanation:

The characteristics of ambivalent attachment in young children include not exploring new places, are distressed when separated from the primary care giver, are not comforted or seem angry when they are reunited with the parent, and are clingy.

Example Question #23 : Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologists are observing toddlers and their primary care-givers in a lab. One toddler is not very responsive to the primary caregiver, is more friendly to strangers in the lab, and in unaffected by the parent leaving and returning to the room. These behaviors indicate a(n) __________ attachment.

Possible Answers:

avoidant

ambivalent

disorganized

secure

Correct answer:

avoidant

Explanation:

The characteristics of avoidant attachment in young children include being unresponsive to a parent when they try to interact, they may react positively to strangers instead of having separation anxiety, they are slow to acknowledge their parent when they leave and return, and they do not cling to the parent when they are being held.

Example Question #24 : Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologists are observing toddlers and their primary care-givers in a lab. One toddler has separation anxiety, prefers their parent to a stranger, and is immediately comforted when their parent returns to the room. These behaviors indicate a(n) __________ attachment.

Possible Answers:

secure

disorganized 

avoidant 

ambivalent 

Correct answer:

secure

Explanation:

The characteristics of secure attachment in young children include exploring new places but using their parent as a secure base, having separation anxiety, having stranger anxiety, and being comforted by their parent’s return.

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