AP Psychology : Classifications and Procedures

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Classifications And Procedures

In research, correlation can easily be mistaken for which of the following principles?

Possible Answers:

Causation

Placebo effect

Hawthorne effect

Counterbalancing

Correct answer:

Causation

Explanation:

A mistake that can often be made in analyzing in any sort of data is confusing correlation with causation. Correlation is when two variables have a definitive relationship with one another. For instance, if someone is trying to see why certain students perform poorly on standardized tests they may find that these students also frequently have brown eyes. The researcher may mistakenly conclude that brown eyes result in poor test performance. The correlation still exists, but it is not enought to prove causation, as a multitude of other variables may be at play in producing poor test results. Other factors may include testing environment, amount of sleep, presence of learning disabilities, etc. that are not included in this study.

Example Question #81 : Research And Testing

Which of the following is the correct chronological order, from left to right, of the steps taken in a scientific investigation?

Possible Answers:

Observation, Hypothesis, Testing, Analysis, Evaluation

Analysis, Design, Data Collection, Hypothesis, Evaluation

Hypothesis, Observation, Testing, Evaluation, Analysis

Hypothesis, Observation, Analysis, Testing, Evaluation

Data collection, Hypothesis, Analysis, Evaluation, Observation

Correct answer:

Observation, Hypothesis, Testing, Analysis, Evaluation

Explanation:

The first step is to observe a phenomenon that can bear scientific study.

The second step is to form a hypothesis that can be tested experimentally.

The third step is to test that hypothesis through empirical research.

The fourth step is to analyze the data that was obtained to draw a conclusion about the findings.

The fifth step is to evaluate one's theory in light of the results of quantitative research.

The correct answer is Observation, Hypothesis, Testing, Analysis, Evaluation.

Example Question #11 : Classifications And Procedures

In what areas of development do genes carry strong influence?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Brain development

Inclinations towards particular interests

Physical appearance

Fine motor skills

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Genetics can play a huge role in many areas of development, including mental and physical capacities. While many environmental factors such as prenatal environment, nutrition, upbringing, socialization, and personal experience can have dramatic impacts on development, genes will have huge influence over, in particular, physical appearance, natural inclinations or abilities, brain development, and fine motor skills. While all of these factors may also be influenced by environmental and other factors, for instance one's physical appearance can be altered by a scar, or one's fine motor skills can be refined with training and practice, the strong influence of genetics on these areas is beyond dispute.

Example Question #11 : Classifications And Procedures

A multiple-choice exam is a test of __________.

Possible Answers:

Recognition memory

Recall memory

None of these

Episodic memory

Eidetic memory

Correct answer:

Recognition memory

Explanation:

Unlike tests of recall memory, which ask test takers to draw the correct answer from their own memories without any cues. Recognition tests present test takers with multiple possible answers and ask them to choose the correct one.

Example Question #12 : Classifications And Procedures

Which of the following is an independent variable?

Possible Answers:

a child's level of anxiety when separated from parent

the amount of aggression of a subject after playing violent games

measure of depression caused by isolation

giving the subject a pill to sleep

Correct answer:

giving the subject a pill to sleep

Explanation:

The independent variable is the variable that is believed to cause change. This is typically the variable that is referred to as the treatment. Giving the subject a sleeping pill is the treatment that could cause change. The other three answers would be considered dependent variables because they could be the variables that are influenced from independent variables. 

Example Question #13 : Classifications And Procedures

Which descriptive research method allows the researcher the most control of the study?

Possible Answers:

case study

survey

laboratory observation

naturalistic observation

Correct answer:

laboratory observation

Explanation:

Laboratory observation allows the researcher to have more control over the experiment and to be able to utilize more precise equipment. In naturalistic observation the researcher is observing the organism in their natural environment which gives the researcher no control of the environment. In both case studies and surveys the participant is giving the information from their point of view which also does not allow the researcher control of the experiment. 

Example Question #81 : History And Research

If a researcher wants to study effects of exercise on school performance of third graders they would choose which of the following groups to study?

Possible Answers:

a sample of school children from all grades

third grade students from a private school in Chicago

the entire population of third graders in the world

a representative sample of third graders

Correct answer:

a representative sample of third graders

Explanation:

A representative sample is a sample that most clearly mirrors the population that is being studied. The proportions of subgroups should be the same as those in the population. This would be the best way to study the population. A sample from all grades would not give results that would be relevant to a study on third graders. Studying the entire population of third graders would not be feasible because of size, time, and expenses. Finally studying only students from a private school in a specific region would not give results that could be generalized for the population.  

Example Question #12 : Classifications And Procedures

In an experiment for depression participants are given medication. One group is getting a high dose, another group a low dose and a final group is getting a placebo. Neither the doctor giving the medications nor the participants know who is in each group. This is an example of ____________.

Possible Answers:

random sampling

experimenter bias

the double-blind technique

the placebo effect

Correct answer:

the double-blind technique

Explanation:

Double-blind technique is where the researcher and the participant are not told who is in which treatment. This allows for there to be no experimenter bias. Experimenter bias is when an experimenters expectations about an experiment outcome could be subtly communicated to the participant skewing the outcome. 

Example Question #13 : Classifications And Procedures

Which of the following techniques allow researchers to observe the brain's function and structure?

Possible Answers:

EEG

EKG

MRI

fMRI

PET scans

Correct answer:

fMRI

Explanation:

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or fMRI differs from MRIs in that it shows both the brain's structure and the functions of its constituent parts. They perform this by using a technique to observe blood flow in the brain rather than just magnetic fields that are used by traditional MRIs.

Example Question #14 : Classifications And Procedures

Which of the following neuroimgaing techniques allow researchers to see inside the living brain?

Possible Answers:

MRI

EEG

PET scans

fMRI

EKG

Correct answer:

PET scans

Explanation:

PET, positron emission tomography, scans provide a visual display of the brain's activity. They do this by using a radioactive version of glucose that can be traced as it is consumed by the brain.  As a result, the technique allows researchers to observe each area of the brain as it consumes the glucose necessary for it to complete a necessary task. 

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