AP Psychology : Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

Which area of the brain is most associated with executive functions such as decision-making, inhibition, and motor control?

Possible Answers:

Temporal lobe

Cerebellum

Parietal lobe

Frontal lobe

Hippocampus

Correct answer:

Frontal lobe

Explanation:

The frontal lobe is responsible for the higher-level cognitive processes associated with executive functions. It contains the primary motor cortex and is involved in decision-making, as well as many other goal-directed behaviors.

Example Question #8 : Brain And Nervous System

Which of the following is a part of the peripheral nervous system?

Possible Answers:

The brain

Autonomic nervous system

The spinal cord

Paraneuronal nervous system

Blood vessels

Correct answer:

Autonomic nervous system

Explanation:

The nervous system is divided into subsystems based on nerve locations and functionality. Neural tissue located in the brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system; all other nervous tissue is considered part of the peripheral nervous system.

The peripheral nervous system is further divided by functionality. Somatic nerve fibers are under voluntary control, while autonomic nerve fibers are under involuntary control. Both of these subdivisions are considered part of the peripheral nervous system (giving us our correct answer). The autonomic nervous system can be further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The sympathetic system is responsible for stress reactions, initiating the fight or flight response, while the parasympathetic system is responsible for resting reactions, often referred to as rest and digest.

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

What is the "information highway" that connects the two hemispheres of the brain?

Possible Answers:

Primary fissure

Amygdala

Corpus callosum 

Hippocampus

Cingulate gyrus

Correct answer:

Corpus callosum 

Explanation:

The corpus callosum is a bundle of white matter tracts that allows for communication between the two hemispheres of the cortex. The famous "split-brain" experiments involved the severing of the corpus callosum.

Example Question #2 : Brain And Nervous System

Which of the following is the best definition of an electroencephalogram?

Possible Answers:

The process by which neurons are regenerated in the brain

The electrical current regulating brain activity

A tool used to measure the brain's electrical impulses.

A tool to measure the number of electrons in the brain

A tool used to measure blood flow in the brain

Correct answer:

A tool used to measure the brain's electrical impulses.

Explanation:

The purpose of an electroencephalogram (EEG) is to determine the electrical activity in the brain by the use of electrodes. These electrodes are connected to the scalp and are used to detect brain waves from the neurons of the brain. It is often used in sleep research.

Example Question #11 : Brain And Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord make up the ___________.

Possible Answers:

Autonomic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System

Correct answer:

Central Nervous System

Explanation:

The brain and spinal cord together make up the Central Nervous System. The Peripheral Nervous System and all of its subdivisions are composed of the various neural pathways to and from the brain/spinal cord.

Example Question #11 : Brain And Nervous System

The hypothalamus plays a key role in which of the following brain functions?

Possible Answers:

Memory

Pain perception

Breathing

Regulating body temperature

Correct answer:

Regulating body temperature

Explanation:

Located below the thalamus, the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and regulates biological needs, including homeostasis (body temperature), sexual drive, aggressive behavior, and hunger. 

Example Question #11 : Brain And Nervous System

Which part of the human nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" mechanism?

Possible Answers:

Sympathetic nervous system

Response-driven nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Somatic nervous system

Flaterra nervous system

Correct answer:

Sympathetic nervous system

Explanation:

The sympathetic nervous system responds to threats (for example, an angry lion walks near you) through the fight or flight mechanism. In the prior example, you could choose to battle the lion (fight) or run away from the lion (flight).

Example Question #11 : Brain And Nervous System

Which part of the brain is responsible for heart rate control, respiration and blood pressure?

Possible Answers:

hypothalamus

hindbrain

forebrain

midbrain

Correct answer:

hindbrain

Explanation:

The hindbrain is composed of structrures responsible for the control of heart rate, respiration and blood pressure. 

Example Question #953 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

After a stressful or arousing situation, which division of the nervous system is responsible for calming someone down?

Possible Answers:

Apathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System

Correct answer:

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Explanation:

A subdivision of the Autonomic Nervous System, the Parasympathetic Nervous System is responsible for returning the body to a calm state after experiencing stress or arousal. The Sympathetic Nervous System arouses the body (i.e. - pupil dilation, increased heartbeat, sweating, etc.). The Somatic Nervous System is responsible for voluntary muscle control.

Example Question #11 : Brain And Nervous System

What are the two major divisions of the Nervous System?

Possible Answers:

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Autonomic and Peripheral

Central and Peripheral

Central and Autonomic

Autonomic and Somatic

Correct answer:

Central and Peripheral

Explanation:

The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) are the two major divisions of the body's nervous system. The CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS is all the nerves outside of that. Further subdivisions of the PNS are the Somatic Nervous System (for voluntary muscle movements) and the Autonomic Nervous System (for responses to stress). The Autonomic is divided between the Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses the body under stress) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms the body down after stress).

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