AP Psychology : Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1341 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following is not part of a neuron?

Possible Answers:

Axon

Glia 

Myelin sheath

Cell body

Dendrite

Correct answer:

Glia 

Explanation:

Glia, also known as glial cells, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons located in the central nervous system. Neurons are made up of dendrites, axons, and a cell body (which is covered by the myelin sheath).

Example Question #51 : Neurons And Action Potentials

What is a refractory period?

Possible Answers:

A period when a neuron is unable to fire due to a lack of internal stimulation.

A period when a neuron fires hydrogen and carbon ions into the nearest glial cell.

A period when light is refracted onto the neuron's surface.

A period immediately after a neuronal firing during which no additional neuronal firings can be completed.

A period when a neuron requires less stimulation to fire at an intense level.

Correct answer:

A period immediately after a neuronal firing during which no additional neuronal firings can be completed.

Explanation:

The refractory period can be thought of as the recovery time that a neuron needs between action potentials. During this period, no additional neurotransmitters can be fired. Most refractory periods are quite short, lasting less than a single second.

Example Question #51 : Biology

What is the myelin sheath's function?

Possible Answers:

Receive neural impulses from axons

Absorb beneficial elements from other surrounding neurons

Increase the speed of neural impulses

Maintain an appropriate level of chlorophyll in the cell

Protect glial cells from foreign particles

Correct answer:

Increase the speed of neural impulses

Explanation:

The myelin sheath is a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of most neurons. The myelin sheath enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.

Example Question #51 : Biology

The sodium potassium pump plays an integral role in neuronal transmission by bringing sodium _______________ cell and potassium ________________ the cell.

Possible Answers:

None of these

into . . . out of

out of . . . out of

into . . . into

out of . . . into

Correct answer:

out of . . . into

Explanation:

The sodium potassium pump moves sodium and potassium against their concentration gradient. The pump moves 3 sodium ions out of the cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell. This pump requires ATP (cellular energy) since it is pumping ions against their gradient.

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

Which of these areas of the brain is not located in the limbic system?

Possible Answers:

Amygdala

Medulla oblangata

All of these are part of the limbic system

Hypothalamus

Hippocampus

Correct answer:

Medulla oblangata

Explanation:

The limbic system is primarily located in the forebrain. Key structures of the limbic system include the hypothalamus (which moderates biological needs, such as hunger), hippocampus (which stores long-term memory), and the amygdala (which plays a role in emotional associations). The primary purposes of the limbic system are to store memories, moderate survival behaviors, and generate emotional responses. It plays a key role in biological motivations by determining such responses as hunger, sex drive, and fear.

The medulla oblongata is located in the hindbrain and brain stem. Its key purpose is to facilitate functions of the autonomic nervous system, initiating such things as respiration, heart beat, and blood pressure. It is not considered part of the limbic system.

Example Question #1341 : Ap Psychology

Alcohol consumption increases the secretion of which of these neurotransmitters?

I. Glutamate

II. GABA

III. Dopamine

Possible Answers:

II only

III only

I, II, and III

II and III

I only

Correct answer:

II and III

Explanation:

Alcohol is a depressant that suppresses the secretion of excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate, while increasing the production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. At the same time, it increases the release of dopamine to the nucleus accumbens, creating a pleasure sensation.

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

Damage to the temporal lobe would most likely affect a person's ability to __________.

Possible Answers:

smell

hear

balance

see

Correct answer:

hear

Explanation:

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the brain, located on the sides of the brain behind the temples and ears. This lobe of the cerebrum houses the auditory cortex, which processes sound.

Vision is processed in the occipital lobe, located in the back of the brain. Balance is maintained by a variety of sensorimotor systems in the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Smell is processed in the olfactory bulb, which is located in the frontal cortex of the brain.

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

The feeling of being hungry is sent from what part of the brain?

Possible Answers:

Frontal lobe

Ventromedial hypothalamus

Thalamus

Brain stem

Correct answer:

Ventromedial hypothalamus

Explanation:

The ventromedial hypothalamus controls feelings of hunger.

The thalamus relays sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex and regulates conciousness, sleep, and alertness. The frontal lobe carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision-making, and planning. The brain stem is the part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord and controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, as well as basic body functions.

Example Question #1 : Brain And Nervous System

What area of the brain is known as the emotional center, and is responsible for emotional reactions such as fear?

Possible Answers:

Amygdala

Hypothalamus

Hippocampus

Corpus callosum

Thalamus

Correct answer:

Amygdala

Explanation:

The amygdala is an almond-shaped region of the inner brain, or the limbic system. It is responsible for emotional learning and emotional reactions.

Example Question #3 : Brain And Nervous System

What area of the brain is responsible for motor control and coordination?

Possible Answers:

Hypothalamus

Cerebellum

Thalamus

Occipital lobe

Amygdala

Correct answer:

Cerebellum

Explanation:

The cerebellum coordinates movements that are initiated by the motor cortex in the frontal lobe. The cerebellum is commonly associated with balance and and coordination. It is located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe.

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