AP Psychology : Behavioral Phenomena in a Group

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

2 Next →

Example Question #11 : Social Psychology

Solomon Asch's influential study examined which of the following social psychological constructs?

Possible Answers:

Stereotypes

Conformity

Social loafing

Social isolation

Correct answer:

Conformity

Explanation:

Asch told participants that they would be participating in a study on visual perception. Little did the participants know, two of their peers were not fellow participants but confederates. The group was asked to determine which line on a card best matched the line on another card. On the first question, the confederates stated the correct answer, but on the second, they both stated an answer that was clearly incorrect. In this experiment, more than two-thirds of participants conformed to the wrong answer stated by the confederates. Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to put in less effort when working together with a group. Stereotypes are negative, positive, or neutral judgments about others based on their membership to a certain social group. 

Example Question #12 : Social Psychology

Cooper asks his three teammates—Tristan, Tyler, and Javier—whether or not they find ranch flavored sunflower seeds (Cooper's favorite) as a dugout snack. Tristan and Tyler openly vocalize their love for ranch flavored sunflower seeds. On the other hand, Javier despises the taste of them, but doesn't want to be teased by his teammates for his "unorthodox" tastes. He lies to his teammates and says that he loves them. Which social psychology phenomenon is at work in this scenario?

Possible Answers:

Informational social influence

Normative social influence

Social loafing

Deindividuation

None of these

Correct answer:

Normative social influence

Explanation:

In this example, Javier lies about his opinion on ranch flavored sunflower seeds so that he can avoid being belittled and teased by his teammates for his differing tastes in dugout snacks. This is a prime example of normative social influence—Javier wants to continue to be well-liked by his teammates, so he lies about his opinion on ranch flavored sunflower seeds to avoid their potential disapproval.

Example Question #11 : Social Psychology

A man gets sick and collapses in the middle of a public square. Due to the bystander effect, if there are many people present, then which of the following is most likely to occur?

Possible Answers:

None of these

It is less likely that someone will help him than if only one or two people are present

It is less likely that another person will begin feeling sick than if one or two people are present

It is more likely that another person will begin feeling sick than if one or two people are present

It is more likely that someone will help him than if one or two people are present

Correct answer:

It is less likely that someone will help him than if only one or two people are present

Explanation:

When there are many people present there is a "diffusion of responsibility," that is, each individual person feels like they have less responsibility to help with the situation. This leads to the bystander effect, whereby people are less likely to help when there are many other individuals present. The most famous example of the bystander effect is the murder of Kitty Genovese. 

Example Question #14 : Social Psychology

Sometimes, humans are aggressive when they perceive they can get away with aggressive actions. They assume that they will not be reprimanded or be punished by negative consequences. Certain acts of violence, such as mob violence or in gangs, can be attributed to which of the following psychological phenomena?

Possible Answers:

Social loafing

Deindividuation 

Bystander effect

Altruism

Reciprocity 

Correct answer:

Deindividuation 

Explanation:

The answer is "deindividuation." Deindividuation is when people lose their individuality, often because that person is in a group or the situation calls for it. On the other hand, "altruisim" is helpful behavior to others for the sake of helping, while the "bystander effect" is when someone doesn't help a distressed person due to thinking that the others present will help. "Social loafing" is when a member of a group doesn't carry his burden, while "reciprocity" is where if someone asks a person a question, then they are more willing to listen to details about something else (i.e. because they initiated a request for information). 

Example Question #15 : Social Psychology

Ms. K is a middle school teacher who would like to assign a group project to her students; however, she is concerned that some of the students will put in less effort, since their individual efforts will be less noticeable. What concept from psychology is Ms. K concerned about?

Possible Answers:

Bystander effect

Risky shift

Social facilitation

Social loafing

Groupthink 

Correct answer:

Social loafing

Explanation:

Social loafing is the tendency for people to put in less effort when working on a task as a group, compared to when working alone. On the other hand, social facilitation is the opposite of social loafing, and occurs when people do better on tasks when others are present. Risky shift is the idea that groups tend to make riskier decisions than individuals. Groupthink occurs when a group suspends its critical thinking abilities and prefers to reach a consensus among members. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that people are less likely to intervene in emergency situations when multiple people are present. This occurs due to diffusion of responsibility. 

Example Question #16 : Social Psychology

Suppose an elderly person is brutally mugged in an alleyway. If the alleyway is in a large city and the mugging occurs during rush hour—such that many people pass by and see this event—then the elderly person will be less likely to receive help from passersby. This is largely due to which of the following phenomena?

Possible Answers:

Groupthink

Societal expectation shift

Bystander effect

Victim shaming

Correct answer:

Bystander effect

Explanation:

The bystander effect reviews to the negative correlation between number of individuals witnessing a negative event and likelihood of any of these individuals to help the struggling person. That is, the more people that witness a crime, the less likely any one individual is to offer help to the victim. This is thought to be due to diffusion of responsibility—a social phenomenon in which people feel less responsibility for the action (or inaction) of a group when the group itself is larger (e.g. a student feeling less guilt when she joins in on mocking the teacher when the whole class is doing it, versus when she initiates the mocking and is the only one doing it).

Example Question #17 : Social Psychology

Jaymes is a baseball player. He values the opinions of his fellow baseball players more than the opinions of other athletes. Which of the following helps to explain Jaymes' preference? 

Possible Answers:

Athletic preference

Groupthink

Ingroup bias

Group polarization

Social facilitation

Correct answer:

Ingroup bias

Explanation:

Ingroup bias, also known as ingroup favoritism, refers to a pattern of favoring members of one's ingroup over outgroup members. In the example above, Jaymes belongs to the baseball playing ingroup; therefore, he values the opinions of baseball players (i.e. the ingroup) versus other athletes (i.e. the outgroup).

Example Question #18 : Social Psychology

Which of the following increases our likelihood to help a stranger in need?

Possible Answers:

Being in a rush

Not knowing how to help

Being in a large crowd

Feeling a personal connection to the stranger

Being a friendly person

Correct answer:

Feeling a personal connection to the stranger

Explanation:

When we feel a personal connection to a stranger in trouble or danger, we are displaying empathy. This makes us more likely to help them. Additionally, feeling this personal connection makes us think of scenarios in which we are the ones in danger and in need of someone's assistance. These thoughts can prompt us to assist someone in need.

Example Question #19 : Social Psychology

"Groupthink" is characterized by which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Group cohesiveness

Creativity and rational decision-making

Conformity and irrational decision-making 

Faster decision-making

Increased motivation to complete a task

Correct answer:

Conformity and irrational decision-making 

Explanation:

Groupthink is the result of a group's desire to reach harmony and consensus that often results in poor decision-making in group settings. While group cohesiveness (i.e. the bond between members of a given group) plays a role in groupthink, it is not necessary for groupthink to occur.

Example Question #20 : Social Psychology

According to which theory would a person who faints in the middle of the street be less likely to be helped if there are ten witnesses rather than one?

Possible Answers:

Social facilitation

Fundamental attribution error

Social loafing

Cognitive dissonance

Bystander effect

Correct answer:

Bystander effect

Explanation:

The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon that people are less likely to intervene in emergency situations when a group of people are present. This finding is attributed to diffusion of responsibility, where people feel less responsible in groups than when they are alone. Cognitive dissonance refers to a person's attempt to resolve the discomfort experienced by holding contradictory beliefs. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to make internal attributions for other people's behaviors rather than look at the situation. Social loafing occurs when people put in less effort when working in groups rather than when working alone. They often feel that their minimal contributions will not be noticed. On the other hand, social facilitation refers to the tendency of people to perform better when in the presence of others. 

2 Next →
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors